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Lecture 9


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Alison Fleming

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Memory Not being able to retrieve memories can be frustrating There are different kinds of memory, and memory has different stages Every experience and memory creates a physical change in your brain Learning is process of acquiring new info Functional memory sys. Has 3 aspects: encoding (STM), consolidation (LTM), retrieval (accessing stored info) Sensory systems bring in info which enters iconic memory that is encoded into WM or STM which is consolidated into LTM, from which we retrieve into STM for performance *can lose info from STM and LTM* HM (Henry Molaison) is one of the rare top-reported amnesic cases  Underwent brain surgery in 1953 at age 27 b/c of epilepsy -> strong & frequent seizures  Surgeon: Dr. William Scoville  Seizures came from both temporal lobes of brain  Surgery removed structures from medial temporal lobes -> rendered HM amnesic although relieved his epilepsy --> removed much of hippocampus which is involved much in memory  Surgeon had removed structures from people before too -> those with serious schizophrenia -> still impaired but unable to see b/c were psychotic before --> HM was normal so only then were impairments noticed  Dr. Brenda Milner, studied amnesic patients who had damage to both sides  Milner is now 94 is still working and began work with HM in 1950s  Interview of HM who was studied by Brenda & Suzanne (Milner's grad student): HM forgot new facts almost immediately  Memory -> what we learned, what we have done  HM couldn’t acquire new information (learn) and retrieve (memory)  His condition helped scientists discover which memories we remember and for how long  His old memories before surgery are still intact which he could still retrieve  Only patient with this surgery b/c after Scoville was mortified and protested against using the procedure again  HM could still learn semantic info --> could associate last names and first names --> before him doctors believed memory was only in ONE spot but now it is more dynamic and brain has many different memory systems: declarative vs. non-declarative -> thinking and not thinking -> act of process not tuning into one area but many parts of the brain  Multiple LTM systems in the brain  However, scientists don’t know how it ALL works  HM's cerebellum was dam
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