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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Emotion, Reward, Agression and Stress

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Ayesha Khan

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PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 7 – August 7, 2013 Chapter 14 – Emotion, Reward, Aggression and Stress Introduction (not part of slides) - What are the physiological parameters associated with emotionality and reward? - Emotions have two major components: o Physiological aspect  hormonal, neuroendocrine, muscular changes o Subjective (personal) experience  we are all feeling something right now, some kind of emotion that is happening - What is the consequence of having subjective stress in the system? Emotion - When the brain perceives a situation, it requires an action and emotions become very important because they get you to do certain things o If you are feeling anxious for assignment 2, that little bit of anxiety gets you to plan out the next couple of days - Triggers you to become successful - Example: Positive emotion o Associated with eating, will be likely for you to eat in the future  survival - The Evolution of Emotion o Adaptive advantage of emotions for our ancestors  Contributing to general arousal  Manage approach and withdrawal behaviours  Help us communicate nonverbally – gestures can provide information Emotion - Controlling Facial Expression o Facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) and trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) o Upper third controlled differently than lower two thirds o Pathways – motor cortex (voluntary expression) and subcortical system (spontaneous expression Innervation of the Facial Muscles - Face is important for expressing emotions - Particularly in species that face other species - Although the whole body is very important, we pay more attention the face, in particular the eyes o The eyes tend to be important for emotionality Emotion - Controlling Facial Expression o Facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) and trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V)  Are important in controlling our facial expressions PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 7 – August 7, 2013  Cranial nerve 7 is for Superficial msucles  The cranial nerve 5 is important for controlling the deep muscles (big actions like chewing) o Upper third controlled differently than lower two thirds  Just know there is a upper portion and lower portion o Pathways – motor cortex (voluntary expression) and subcortical system (spontaneous expression) Innervation of Facial Muscles - Facial nerves have 5 branches that go all over the face itself - Each branch will serve a different portion of the face that are superficial - The Facial nerve originates in two nuclei in either sides of the pons o Then you have long axons that go all over the superficial part of the face and brain - The nuclei don’t necessarily with one another, but will communicate with the rest of the face o Speculated that maybe it is to make the system even more branched out since there are two clusters of nuclei’s - The facial nerve has lots of synapses (input) that come from: o Subcortical (underneath the cortex) o Motor cortex  Precentral gyrus - Divide the face and we look at the difference between how each part of the face is being controlled - Upper portion of the face: Muscles are controlled bilaterally o These neurons will synapses with the muscles. Eventually the efferent movement occurs at the level of the muscle. o Ipslateral - Lower portion of the face: Muscles controlled contralaterally o Neurons originating from one hemisphere, will control the opposite portion of the face o If for instance, there is a type of tumor or stroke, it has an impact on the lower part of the face due to the contralateral connections o Damages can occur: Motor cortex or subcortical regions  where one side of the mouth starts to droup and becomes “paralyzed” PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 7 – August 7, 2013 Voluntary and Spontaneous Expressions are Managed by Different Areas of the Brain - This individual has a tumor (abnormal cell growth  increased number of cells in an area) that is in the primary motor cortex - If you ask the individual to smile for the camera (voluntary) is a weird smile - The second picture, his smile is mediated by subcortical structures Emotion - Biological Influences on Emotional Expression o Darwin: emotional expression has a strong biological bias o Universality of emotions  Tells us that there must be some genetic blue print in general o Developmental progression of expression and recognition in human and nonhuman primates o Twin studies Major Facial Expressions are Easily Recognized Around the World - When we look at expressions associated with anger, happiness, embarrassment, sadness etc., all cultures have these basic emotions Infants’ Separation Protests Occur at the Same Times Regardless of Culture - Show the greatest emotional reaction (crying) about the same time - There is a cry that comes out when you taken them away from their mom - Increase of crying tends to occur around the same time, it tells us that there is a biological orgin Emotion - Environmental Influences on Emotion o Presence of others influences intensity of emotional expression o In a social setting, you are gaining information from someone’s reaction whether you know it or not - Individual differences in Emotion o Overall level of reactivity differs o Amygdala PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 7 – August 7, 2013  In the limbic system is an important structure that has been studied for all emotions, but more for fear.  Study shows that if you look at infants, there is a range of emotional responses. The magnitude of the response is what we call intensity.  Highly reactive (intense emotional response) as infants, are later on at risks for mood disorders  Low reactivity infants, the likeihood of them showing antisocial behaviour is more so - Can we Spot a Liar? o Ways liars slip up o Polygraph – unreliable o Function MRIs may be used to detect changes in brain activation during lying o Brain finger printing  looking at EEG recordings  The timing of telling the truth is shorter of that of a lie because the assumption is that you take a longer time to create the lie Polygraph Testing - It measures arousal - The idea that if you are asked a series of questions, not very arousing questions (where do you live, who is your boss), because your most likely going to tell you the truth - Arousal – there is a change in your breathing rate, electrical resistance of the skin, and blood levels change - Challenge with Polygraph Testing o It is not giving 100% accurate information as sometime innocent people are found guilty through the polygraph test (same with guilty people who are found innocent) Theories of Emotion Bear walks through the door… - The James-Lange Theory o Fight-or-flight >>> Fear o First you have a physiological response which then gets labeled as fear - The Cannon-Bard Theory o Fight-or-flight & Fear o Activation of the SNS and a subjective label of fear at the same time - The Schachter-Singer Theory o General arousal (cortical, blood pressure… not exactly all of the flight or flight activated) PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 7 – August 7, 2013 >> cognitive appraisal (thinking time) >> fear James-Lange Theory - Physical states of each type of feeling are highly distinct and we are capable of labeling these states as separate feelings o We are good at labeling if we are feeling digest, anger, happiness - “We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble” o Here we talk about physical states and they are distinct o Physiologically something happens, and you give it a label, ie. Cry, strike or tremble - Facial feedback hypothesis o You can trick your brain into thinking something that might not be accurate o Example: Laugher therapy o If you intentionally make a facial expression will lead to a physiological change due to tricking the brain that someone good/bad happened in the environment - We are not 100% accurate in labeling the physiological response that you might see in a scary movie o Sometimes the fear is misinterpreted with sexual arousal Cannon-Bard Theory - Physical responses and subjective responses occur simultaneously and independently Schachter-Singer Theory - No specific physical responses but a general arousal o You need time to figure out what is going on with this general arousal, and then there is this labeling that is subjective - Cognitive appraisal and labelling of subjective feelings Contemporary Theories of Emotion - “No we need to have more detailed understanding of what is happening” - Responses may range from ambiguous to specific - Somatic marker for emotional experience o It is a representation in t
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