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Lecture 6

PSY310 Lecture 6 (Feb 25, 2013).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Simone Walker

NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - PEER GROUPS SLIDE 2 - modern peer groups - How peer groups form - Peer influence - Popularity and rejection SLIDE 3 Childhood & early adolescence – peer = age-mate - Individuals who are the same age - Friends are not the same as peers, because not all peers are friends and not all friends are the same age SLIDE 4 - Valued mutual relationship SLIDE 5 - Two or more individuals who are interdependent - Tend to be alike in several things - Clear social norms that govern how they behave and well defined social roles SLIDE 6 - Not just formal education but there’s age grading segregation - Not until the 1920s did this occur - Changes in formal education throughout history SLIDE 7 - Majority of studies have been done in North America - After the war, there was the baby boom - Parents were very concerned with having children and so there were a lot of adolescents in the 1960 and 1970 - Then there was a slight decrease, during the 2000s, there’s an increase of adolescent again (where baby boomers’ children have children) - Mental health are different in adolescents and adults - “youth culture” influence of peers on adolescents SLIDE 8 - Controversial idea of youth culture - Adolescents of their group have different social norms and behaviours compared to adults and sometimes it’s contrary - Deviants of adolescents; not anything new, adults have progressively view adolescents in negative ways - Values of hedonism; pleasure and have fun - Age segregation in formal education that brought upon this youth culture - Because of nature of modern society, youth culture is necessary; pace of technology makes the adults not capable of keeping up and teaching their children so that’s why there’s more interactions with peers - Socialization and preparing each other for the adult roles; this view suggest that youth culture is necessary because peers play a vital socialization role SLIDE 9 - Looking at cultural norms - How you behave will depend on family lineages because different families have different social norms - Universalistic norms are all the same throughout the world - The family is less equipped to socialize children and adolescents because different families have different norms, but universalistic norms said NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. everyone is the same - Make sense to have formal education to allow children and adolescents to spend more time with peers - Peers become important as socialization tool SLIDE 10 - In childhood, individuals spend more time with parents - By adolescence, there are dramatic changes where adolescents spend more time with friends and not just within school, but afterschool and weekends SLIDE 11 - Depend more on friends to meet their intimacy and companionship needs - Intimacy involves sharing how you feel, thoughts, - Disclosing secrets - Depend on friends for happiness - Adolescents not only on friends, but they depend on each other for happiness and fun; for adolescents, the person they have most fun with is their friends SLIDE 12 - Attachment plays a significant role - Parental relationships allows adolescents to learn to interact with others and what to expect - People can be trusted and depended upon so that adolescents can also have a secure attachment with friends SLIDE 13 - Where parents choose to live have influence on how adolescents select friends and influence the pool of people of where friends are selected - Approve and disapprove friends - Parenting styles and engaging in certain behaviours and this will develop certain traits and personalities in the adolescents and affect their relationships with people - Even though adolescents spend less time with parents, they still take an important role SLIDE 14 - In mood, there’s a split between parents and adolescents - For adolescents, they mirror their mood with their friends - Adolescents feel more comfortable talking with friends compared to with their parents such as their sexuality or similar events - Adolescents is cognitively able to develop and maintain intimate relationships SLIDE 15 - In traditional society, tend to see more gender differences - Girls more likely to spend with family particularly same sex adults; boys spend more time with peers than family - They say there are high enjoyment in spending time with family SLIDE 16 - Gender of friends - In childhood, boys play with boys and girls play with girls; same-sex friends - In adolescents, that doesn’t change in terms of spending time with same-sex peers, but what changed is spending more time with opposite- sex peers - Why? One large reason is puberty - In childhood, parents select your friends and because of socialization and gender roles, parents are more likely to select same sex friends; as you get older, there are less adult supervision and select your friends and so you have more freedom and because of socialization of sex NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. roles, still more likely to choose same sex friends and most of the time, it depends on your interests and sharing common activities and since boys and girls have different interests, it makes sense to want to hang out with same sex people - Dating and having romantic relationships will bring forth opposite sex friendships - Sexuality has profound effects on adolescent peer group SLIDE 17 - Childhood are closely monitored and they organize what children do and who they hang out with - In adolescents, there are lesser adult supervision - Autonomy means the freedom of making their own decisions and taking more control of their life and they’re granted more control - Gain more independence SLIDE 18 - Not only where you find your friends, but where you spend time with friends - In adolescents, more friends outside their neighbourhood because more mobility such as taking public transit or driving - Extracurricular activities such as clubs where they meet people from other neighbourhoods SLIDE 19 - Ethnicity doesn’t play much of a role in childhood - Ethnicity segregation in adolescents in which having more friends in the same ethnic background - Improvements in several cognitive domains; becoming more aware of ethnic tensions and conflicts and this appreciation of these things will develop mutual suspicion and distrust of other ethnicity - Another reason is because adolescents is a time to discover who you are and develop their identity and their ethnic background is important for who they are - See a sharpening perception of different ethnic groups - Size in peer groups also changes - In childhood, it’s usually 3-5 kids; in adolescents there’s more SLIDE 20 - In childhood, friendships are not characterized by intimacy, it’s who you play with and the sharing of toys - Concrete reciprocities in which you share or play with each other SLIDE 21 - Close friend by age 10 - Mutual attachment to a person who is not a family member - Start expecting trust and loyalty such as the secrets you may share SLIDE 22 - Emergence of cognitive skills - Thinking abstractly and problem solving (resolving issues in friendship), social cognition, understanding and appreciating abstract concepts (loyalty, trust) - Adolescents are able to take another person’s perspective - Biological transitions during puberty and they will turn to friends and discuss these changes SLIDE 23 - Proximity seeking: we like to be near the person to whom we have an attachment - Separation protest: we get distress when we are separated - Safe haven: source of comfort and support NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Secure base: our attachment figure is a base and so we can explore new environments - In childhood, the parents serve all these needs - In adolescents, parents are less important in proximity and separation protest and friends serve these needs - Friends also begin to serve the last two needs and so we see changes in intimacy in adolescents friendships - Friends don’t completely replace parents SLIDE 24 - There are still important gender differences - Girls tend to talk more to their friends and value their friendships - Boy friendships tend to be based on doing the same activities - Girls are socialized to be more nurturing and affectionate and knowing how people feel and so girls friendships are consistent of how they make friends - Boys are not socialized like girls, they are not sensitive but assertive and independent and so their friendship will parallel what they have been taught SLIDE 25 - How the peer groups form - Cliques are people of roughly around the same age and of the same sex - They have knowledge of each other and appreciate each other - Crowds are made up of large groups and loosely organized - Collection of cliques but it’s more complicated than that SLIDE 26 - Social interactions mainly take place in cliques - Tendency to join cliques is relatively stable - Some adolescents more likely to join cliques - Functions of cliques is different from crowds - Serve to regulate activities, including talking about and planning the activity - Cliques serve as a means of communicating about what to do in the crowd - Serve as a means and a place to talk about past activities - Psychosocial roles - Trying new things together - Development of intimacy and sexuality SLIDE 27 - Age segregation in formal education - Members of the same clique is most likely the same age - Sex cleavage in childhood and in adolescents, still tend to have more same sex friends because of shared activities - Adolescents tend to be more sensitive to sex roles and gender roles SLIDE 28 - Cliques usually compose people of same social class, but it’s usually of only one social class difference - Typically, cliques comprised of people of same ethnic background - Ethnicity influences our attitude and behaviour and our perception of how other people see you - Parents cultural orientation, in which parents strongly identify their ethnic background and so their children will engage in certain ethnic NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. activities and ingrained that part in them - Neighbourhood are ethnically segregated too and likely to form same ethnic cliques - We tend to be friends with people who are similar to us and in terms of academic SLIDE 29 - Cliques: membership - Influenced by orientation towards school, teen culture and involvement in antisocial activity SLIDE 30 - Education plans, future education plans and academic achievement - People who believed in school will spend more time doing school work and they will likely be friends who do the same thing - Strongly oriented students will also be in the same classes and also serve as a means of selecting friends - Friends will reinforce your attitude and can give you help and support and you will also serve the same function for your friends - If you’re not into school, you will do other activitie
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