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Lecture 2

PSY310 Lecture 2 (Jan 14, 2013).docx

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Simone Walker

NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - Biological transitions SLIDE 2 - today’s objectives SLIDE 3 - Physical changes and adolescents perception of these changes - Capable of sexual reproduction - Between brain and endocrine system - No new hormones that are produced and no new bodily systems SLIDE 4 - producing, circulating and regulating hormones - Hormones are proteins that secrete into glands and into the bloodstream - Gonadotropins and gonadotropin releasing hormones SLIDE 5 - Associated with certain set points and there’s particular levels at which it operates - If it falls below set point, it starts to pick up and hormone production start to rise again to get it back to normal levels and vice versa when it is above set point SLIDE 6 - Responsible for puberty - Hypothalamus: small region of the brain, under the cortex; it controls the pituitary glands - Also in that regions are neurons and it’s concentrated in the hypothalamus - Gonads: produce sex hormones SLIDE 7 - HPG Axis is active in prenatal development - At 8 weeks its already active - Active so that it can stimulate the sex hormones - Gonadotropins releasing neurons - Pulse more frequently - Feminize the brain and masculinise the brain - After prenatal stage, the HPG Axis goes quiet, and so sex hormones are constant and similar in both boys and girls - Around middle childhood, the neurons start to fire more frequently and this brings about puberty - What happens when it starts to fire? It stimulates gonadotropins releasing hormones and it furthers stimulate LH and FSH (releasing factors; substances to tell the gonads to start releasing sex hormones) SLIDE 8 - LH and FSH travels in the bloodstream until they reach the gonads - Stimulate the production of egg shells and they stimulate the production of sperm - Gametes that are important for sexual reproduction - LH and FSH also tells the gonads to release androgens and estrogens; what differs is the production of each one in the male and female (where androgen are higher in males and estrogens higher in females) - Hypothalamus monitors the amount of sex hormones and keeping it at their set point - The set point goes up during puberty because more of these hormones are needed to create sexual characteristics of males and females - There are more firings of neurons in the hypothalamus to stimulate more production of sex hormones in order to get puberty rolling - QUESTION ON THE MIDTERM SLIDE 9 SLIDE 10 - Occurs when HPG axis is turned back on - Responsible for bringing about primary sexual organs - What triggers HPG axis to turn back on? - Genetic cues; when puberty occurs is heritable to a certain extent - Metabolic cues; whether there are sufficient energy and preparing for sexual reproduction; people who are malnourished or who exercises a lot - Social cues; need a mate to sexually reproduce so whether there are mates around - Environmental cues; allows to develop energy resources SLIDE 11 - Leptin is a hormone secreted by fat cells; important for hunger and - Important for HPG axis - May explain why girls who exercise excessively will delay puberty because they don’t have enough NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. fat in their body which means not enough leptin - Leptin is important for girls but it’s not sufficient factor SLIDE 12 - Regulated by a different feedback loop - HPA Axis (instead of gonads, it’s the adrenal glands) - Adrenarche happens before gonadnarche; around 6-8 years old - Responsible for adolescent growth spurt - Stimulating thyroid glands to stimulate more growth hormones and it’s responsible for some secondary sex characteristics - Sufficient concentrations is needed before these characteristics are produced - Producing androgens that are responsible for adolescent growth spurt, secondary sexual characteristics, and cortisol - Individuals are not more stress, they are more vulnerable to stress because they have a heightened sensitivity - Levels of cortisol flutuate rapidly and hormone productions explains why adolescents are moody - Adrenarche contributes to sexual attraction around the age of 10 and brought on by the adrenal glands SLIDE 13 - Feminine - Estrogens and androgens are release and then the brain begins to change its structure; if there’s more androgens, it will masculinise and if there’s more estrogens, it will feminize - Sex differences has to do with the early masculinization or feminizing of the brain in prenatal - Activating role; increasing size of testes to produce sperm and increasing size of ovaries for maturation of eggs; lowering of the voice in males and females SLIDE 14 - Physical changes - Rapid increase in height and weight - Development of gonads such as testes and ovaries - Development of secondary sex characteristics such as breasts, pubic hair, acne, chest hair, etc; SLIDE 15 - RAPID increase that takes place - Fastest growth throughout the lifespan other than at the age of 2 - Adrenarche responsible for growth spurt - Other thyroid hormones and androgens that are being released - Average: males: 4 inches/year females: 3.5 inches/year - Epiphysis: refers to capping of the long bones in the body, when cartilage develop and close off the bones such as the femur and it brings an end to the lengthening of the bones SLIDE 16 - Rate of increase is slower during childhood and then increase more during adolescent and levels off in the emerging adulthood - Height gain per year shows more of the differentiation - Girls begin adolescent growth spurt earlier than boys, at least by 2 years - Synchronizity of growth - The extremities grow first (head, hands and feet) and then arms and legs and at the end of the adolescent growth spurt, it’s the torso - Changes to the face occurs early in the adolescent growth spurt SLIDE 17 - In height and WEIGHT - Changes in muscle and fat; it’ll start to increase in both genders - Androgens that stimulate growth of muscles - Males will experience more growth in muscle tissues and faster - Body fat increases more for girls than boys ; especially the case just before puberty and this results different muscle to fat ratio - Differences in physical activity; guys will get stronger and perform stronger in athletic activities - Heart increase in size but the heart rate slows down NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - The heart grows more larger and rapidly in boys and slows down more for boys than girls - Lungs also changes; increases for boys more so than girls - Taken together, the rapid increase of muscle, less body fat, larger heart and lungs contributed to their greater strength in athletic abilities - But it’s not just biological, even culturally, girls are encouraged to do social things and preparing them for motherhood, while boys are encouraged to be more physical - A lot of girls don’t meet the time of daily physical activities SLIDE 18 - Development of gonads - Length and size of penis - Testes growth - Production of sperm cells because boys aren’t born with sperm - Spermarche - Numbers in the billons of sperms - In females - Size and weight of ovaries - 400,000 egg cells - By puberty, 80,000 in each ovary - During puberty, certain number of egg cells will mature and become ova or ovum(singular) and travel through fallopian tubes and enter the uterus - Release with lining of uterus (menstruation) - 400 ova will be produced - Uterus and vulva will lengthen as well - Secondary sex characteristics - Breast development - Tanner stages to mark secondary sex characteristics and when they occur in adolescents SLIDE 19 - One year after the lengthened growth of penis - Regular compared to girls - Growth in testes and scrotal sac and then growth of pubic hair - Adolescent growth spurt - After adolescent growth spurt, there’s increasing size of penis - Lowering of voice - Spermarche - Then underarm, facial and body hair - The last event is changes in sweat production, acne, and body odour - Boys are capable of fathering children before they look like adults - Once they take on the adult appearance, it occurs relatively late in the sequence - It’s opposite for girls, they look like adults before they can bear chi
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