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Lecture 7

PSY310 Lecture 7 (Mar 4, 2013).docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY310H5
Professor
Simone Walker
Semester
Winter

Description
NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - SCHOOLS, WORK, LEISURE AND MEDIA SLIDE 2 - Previously talked about changes in school - Education in emerging adulthood - Work - Leisure: things to do for fun - Media: playing music and video games SLIDE 3 - Process of industrialization changed formal education and children and adolescents experience changes in school - Pre-industrialization, children and adolescent spend a bit of time in community school while most of the time they spend with helping their parents on farms or household chores - Industrialization increased work in factories and in the urban centres, and because of this, mechanics and machines decreased work for humans so there were less jobs available for adults and adolescents - Advent of child labour laws so that there will be more jobs for adults - Large educational system was developed so children and adolescents are placed there - In 1910, about 15% of adolescents went to one of these formal schools; but it was only adolescents with wealthy background - In 1920, in the US, there was a dramatic increase of adolescents and children going to school - By 2010, 97% of males and females are in school SLIDE 4 - This differ in different cultures; Japanese students spend 240 day in school th th - Around 1924, only 33% of 5 graders graduate but by the 2000s, 75% 5 graders will graduate on time - Individuals are spending more time in school such as secondary and post-secondary SLIDE 5 - Reform for educational institutions - The curriculum was different then than now; it was focused on liberal arts - Influx of immigrants so there were increasing concern to knowing how to Americanize these children - How to prepare adolescents for adulthood - Comprehensive high school: aim at socializing and educating a large number of children and adolescents - Schools had to change in order to meet a growing need of population - Universalistic norms regardless of lineage and family - How to make sure they follow those norms? You enrol them in comprehensive schools so that they all learn the same things SLIDE 6 - Comprehensive education majorly in US - In Europe, their education is quite different; different types of high school and secondary schools - 50% attend college-preparatory school; focus on general education and not specific subjects SLIDE 7 - Vocational schools: the other 50% of adolescents are enrolled in this; preparing adolescents for entering in a particular workforce - Professional school: focus on teacher training, arts or other specific purposes, and allow adolescents to access to university - Apprenticeship programs: match novice students with a master and learning the skills needed for that profession; adolescents not only spend hours under the master, but also spend several hours in formal education; what they learn in school is closely tied to what they learn in the job NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Research question of whether comprehensive schools are better or worse? - Comprehensive schools don’t adequately prepare adolescents for work or family roles; - The European education system forces adolescents to decide and choose a career path and profession at an early age and thus does not have time to explore and developed the necessary skills to switch professions later on in life SLIDE 8 - What are the functions of school? - Socialization - More formally, there are two important functions - Maintenance-actualization: involve school being a place so that students can grow socially and they’re surrounded by peers and thus forced to interact and make good social skills; also help students grow emotionally (feel and expression) and also identity formation (crowds and cliques) and help to reinforce your identity; school enrich student lives - Skills-training/cultural transmission: school providing students with necessary skills and preparing them for what they’re supposed to be and what they should do and how to contribute to society SLIDE 9 - Various factors of education that affect adolescents SLIDE 10 - General climate and nature of interactions SLIDE 11 - Administration that exhibit strong leadership - Clear and firm rules for conduct and clearing disputes - Serving and meeting goals - Orderly and non-oppressive atmosphere and put less stress on students and teachers - Teachers can design more engaging, interactive school plan and provide more monitoring for students and then tailor their lesson plan and teaching strategy - Cohesive schools: in which students feel a part of the community; enriching the students and instill a sense of belonging; emphasizing activities that everybody can participate in - Teacher involved in decision making - Strong links to the community in which the school is embedded in the community and so the schools are more effective in meeting their goals - Provide more opportunities for extracurricular activities and after graduation employment; if schools are isolated from the community, schools are less likely to meet those goals SLIDE 12 - Size of the school; not talking about class size - Students performance increases when school are smaller in size and this is because smaller schools are less bureaucratic and more informal in nature - Class size has less of an influence; except when teaching students with specialized needs in which smaller classes are much better for student learning - One benefit of large schools is that they can provide more variety in their curriculum and more money to hire more teachers and also more extracurricular activities (however, there is lower participation of these activities and more likely as observers) - Large schools can create schools within schools SLIDE 13 - Sense of belonging is satisfied and so students perform better - Also provide more opportunities for leadership and given more responsibilities NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - More likely to participate in extracurricular activities or other events - Smaller schools are better for aiding students who need more help; able to monitor student performance and sensitive to those students who are struggling academically SLIDE 14 - School size is becoming more of an issue; less so in Canada, but in the US - Overcrowding of students and there are lower achievement - Usually located in inner regions in cities and in poorer areas - More stress is put upon the students and the teachers because they are not equipped with handling so many students - Lack of resources and not enough funding or facilities for overcrowded students - Portable classrooms are built but are usually made with hazardous material SLIDE 15 - Students of particular age were taught together according to age - Three school system: elementary  middle school  high school - It is the quality of teaching and the school’s climate that affects students SLIDE 16 - Focusing on actual transition - First year of middle school and high school is usually shown a decrease of academic motivation or achievement and self esteem; but these effects are temporary - The years following that it goes back to normal - It’s about the transitions that students have to go to new schools that created these negative effects and not so much the segregation of grades - Standardized tests results are still the same; it measures stable abilities such as intelligence and it is about students experiences that is impacting their changes; it’s not student’s knowledge that is increasing or decreasing - Grading practices changes so students are not used to the new ways of grading and different expectations SLIDE 17 - Moving to a new school institute a new social environment - In a new social situation, you’re not sure where you fit in and this can have a temporary negative impact of how you view yourself - Maturational changes and ego centrism; physical changes of puberty and may elicit unwelcome or welcome attention from your peers - May be psychologically taxing to adolescents through the whole experience of transitions and puberty changes - School can reduce the anonymity by helping new students be integrated into the new school such as older students mentoring younger students SLIDE 18 - This can explain why two school systems have a more positive effect than the three school systems because two school systems only have one transition instead of two - Not the actual configuration, but the transitions that students have to make or the nature of transition - Teacher expectations are different when you change school - Middle school/junior high teachers have different expectations and beliefs compare to elementary and high school teachers; they think students need more monitoring and discipline, less likely to trust students, and feel less confident about their teaching abilities, more likely to believe that students’ abilities are fixed and so they’re less likely to modify their teaching plan - There’s a mismatch to what the students need and what they’re getting from their teachers; because teachers think middle schoolers need NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. to be monitored, they are less likely to be given autonomy and leadership roles...but this is the time that adolescents want independence and this may explain why after SLIDE 19 - Within particular schools, students are put into different classes depending on their abilities of academic achievement - Tracking limits certain opportunities - Consequences of tracking: type of education that students get are quite different; students in remedial track get a poorer quality of education because the teachers may not be a good teacher; many schools may not provide enough resources for students in the remedial track; students in remedial track are mostly people from ethnic minorities and they may be dealing with other things such as prejudice or stereotypes - Another argument is that students only socialize with students who are on the same track and therefore not socializing with people from other tracks and may create stereotypes and prejudice amongst the groups of different tracks - Track placement could be biased because a large population of students in remedial classes are of ethnic minorities who may be placed there based on ethnicity instead of their ability OR parents who lobby the school to put their children into gifted classes; these could create certain consequences such as students wrongly placed in gifted classes in which they feel inadequate compared to the rest of the students and become disengaged; or when students wrongly placed in remedial tracks may experience reduced employment because there’s a stigma attached when they’re placed in the remedial track and may affect their interactions with others and how they personally see themselves and how their peers treat them - Tracking allows teachers to design their classes in order to fit the needs of their students according to their academic abilities; will be more effective in teaching students than teaching a class with diverse needs - Tracking when done well, it can increase student achievement; when tracking is not done well and bias
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