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PSY310 Lecture 1 (Jan 7, 2013).docx

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Simone Walker

NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - Videos are not testable, just sit and relax and watch it - Adolescence is between childhood and adulthood - Only recently did this period between age periods are studied - Platos: Transition phase - develop the capacity to reason; he believes children shouldn’t be educated before 7 because they lack reasoning before that - During and context of where puberty takes place and the effects - Cognitive: development, new abilities, and hypothetical thoughts, abstracts, taking others perspective - Social transitions: change in social relationships, detaching from parents and attachments to peers and romantic partners, sexuality SLIDE 2 - “But when, by what test, by what implication does manhood commence? Physically by one criterion, legally by another. Morally by a third, intellectually by a fourth – and all indefinite” – Thomas De Quincey - Adolescent begins when puberty begins and ends when puberty ends? Or when adolescent begin to use advanced reasoning and hypothetical thoughts and end when it consolidated? Or by legal status such as beginning in juvenile and end at age of majority? Or when they develop relationships with others other than their parents? - It’s tricky to define the boundaries - Some societies have rituals to show the changes to adolescent or to adulthood - We’re going to define adolescent from the period of time from age of 10 to 18. SLIDE 3 - Some psychologists argue that adolescence doesn’t end at 21 - So they added another stage called emerging adulthood (the sense of in between where they’re not a teenager but not quite an adult) SLIDE 4 - Theories are either nativist or split - Nature vs nurture - Some theories say it’s always about biology such as biological changes that drives these changes and it’s all about genes - Some theories say it’s about the environment and the context in which you’re growing up; experiences - Nowadays, it’s the interaction between both that drives the changes of a person SLIDE 5 - Infancy and childhood are like primitives - Upheaval of storm and change and therefore adolescence (turmoil) - It’s because of our genes and we’re program to have these turmoil and upheavals, and since it’s all programmed, it’s unavoidable. - So he thinks environment has nothing to do with it, plays no role - Nowadays, this theory is discredited, but Hall has contributed to many ideas - Depression peaks in mid adolescence SLIDE 6 - Environment does matter and tries to talk about the interactions and interplay of the environmental forces - Freud: claims sexual development occurs with hormones and early social experiences; didn’t really focus on adolescence; once you pass latency phase and resolve psychosexual conflicts, you’re in a state of psychic balance and then something happens: puberty, and those past psychosexual conflicts emerges again and so Freud said adolescence is the time where you resolve these conflicts in order to move on to the next stage in life - Erickson: we progress through life through series of stages; unlike Freud, thinks it’s the biology and external demands of society that drives development and who society think you should be; once we leave childhood, it’s identity confusion and he says that development continues throughout our life; in emerging adulthood, another crisis happens where there’s intimacy and isolation problem where one needs to form a lasting relationship in order to successfully move onto next stage NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Piaget: moving through series of stages, unlike Freud and Erickson, development occurs from biological forces and intellectual environment (cognition); shift from concrete thinking to abstract thoughts; in adolescence, formal operations stage where you can think abstractly instead of things that are here and now, the ability to explore different career paths; able to take another person’s perspective - These theories are very influential to the study of adolescence SLIDE 7 - Focus on the environment because we know biology manners - Behaviourism: what is being reinforce and being punished - Social learning: look at what behaviour is being modelled SLIDE 8 - Sociological theories: focus on adolescents as a group - Explore adolescents by asking questions such as how adolescents come together in a group - Generation gap and intergenerational tensions and the effects on social relationships - Marginalized adolescents: powerless as an adolescent beca
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