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Lecture 3

PSY310 Lecture 3 (Jan 21, 2013).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Simone Walker

NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - Cognitive transitions SLIDE 2 - How the brain changes in terms of structure and functions - Talking a little about intelligence - Social cognition: how we think about people and our social world - Risk-taking SLIDE 3 - Adolescents don’t think the same as children or adults - Researchers listed 5 ways SLIDE 4 - Children are usually focus on what’s happening currently - Adolescents can realize what is real and only one part of what is possible; thinking about the future and various directions that can occur - Children are not incapable of fantasy and pretend play, but the difference is that adolescents are better at deducing what is concrete and what is possible - Also better in doing it in a systematic fashion - Their reasoning becomes more advanced and infer certain information from a set of information given to them; doesn’t logically follow from the information but we can draw a conclusion based on deductive reasoning - Deductive reasoning: drawing logical conclusions from set premises; adolescents are better than children when using this type of reasoning - Math and science uses deductive reasoning and we’ll see that training in those subjects will aid in deductive skills and it also helps you do better in math and science SLIDE 5 - Suspend belief: don’t have to change your beliefs in order to understand the validity of someone’s argument - Ex. Don’t have to believe hobbits and elves are real, in order to enjoy Lord of the Rings movie - Using a pendulum to solve a problem to see what factors causes the pendulum to swing faster; children uses random order to try to test it out; adolescents uses a systematic manner to solve this problem where they change one factor at a time - Conflicts between parents; not that adolescents become more argumentative, it’s that adolescents become better arguer; children lack hypothetical thinking but adolescents have these capabilities to come up with counter arguments; they’re exercising these new abilities and able to call out the parents - Planning for the future SLIDE 6 - Thinking about concepts that can’t be felt by one’s senses - Children tend to think about what they’re feeling at the moment or experiences they had - Adolescents can think about concepts more abstractly such as friendship - They also think more about abstract concepts and ideas SLIDE 7 - Higher order abstract problems - Alternative meanings for a sentence - Ability to analyze analogy; such as opposites - For children, they’re more likely to answer bed or night because it’s a concrete thing and based on direct experience SLIDE 8 - Your ability to think about your thinking and monitoring your thoughts - Thinking about your own thoughts - Using mnemonics and using it correctly - Allows adolescents to explain what they know, how they know and why they know it - We don’t always have control over our thoughts; and if we can monitor it then we have control over it - Introspection: thinking about their own emotions - Self-consciousness: thinking about what others think about them - Intellectualization: Thinking about their thoughts specifically - These 3 will make up the unique perception of the individual on themselves SLIDE 9 - Mix up their thoughts with thoughts of what others think of them - They’re the subject of everyone’s thought – adolescent egocentrism NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Imaginary audience: everyone is watching them and everyone is the audience and the spotlight is on the individual; they have this new ability of thinking about their own thoughts and so they assume everyone will share the same thoughts - Adults also show imaginary audience; but adolescents show this tendency to a much stronger degree - Personal fable: stems from imaginary audience, and thinking that they’re special and as their experience as unique; they will think that people do not understand them and that the individual is special and unique and therefore think everyone is watching them - Illusion of invulnerability: belief that good things happen to you and bad things only happen to other people; ex. Having unprotected sex because they think STDs won’t happen to them and only happen to other people - Adults also show this tendency but it’s stronger in adolescents because they’re newly exposed to these meta-cogniton SLIDE 10 - Picking up on sarcasm; recognizing the multiple dimensions at the same time to pick up on the sarcasm such as the way they said it, tone, and other emotional cues - Double-entendres: double meanings; adolescents are able to pick up the double meanings and so they appreciate certain humor - Thoughts and differentiations become more complex; considering different things, factors and dimensions to come up with a conclusion - People can act differently and perform in a multi dimensional fashion To themselves, other people and social situation SLIDE 11 - Option 1 has 2/3 good options - Adolescents are able to think simultaneously about 3 dimensions SLIDE 12 - Appreciate that there’s more than one side to a debate - Things they thought were facts, may not be facts at all - Likely to question what’s right and wrong - Increased conflicts between adolescents and their parents; is it a rule? Is it based on truths or is it based on what the parents want them to do? - Skepticism and may result that the adolescent feeling no knowledge is reliable and that everything is uncertain SLIDE 13 - Early 20s to mid-20s - Pragmatism: understanding that your think and your behaviour is constrain by real life - Adapting logical thinking to the constraint of the real world - Better understanding that the real world imposes limitations - Adolescents are likely to say that the wife will leave; emerging adulthood will think of other solutions and consider real world constraints and limitations; show pragmatic thoughts SLIDE 14 - Reflective judgment: whether you can accurately and logically use evidence towards arguments - Dualistic thinking: thinking of two sides, not absolute - Children are usually only able to see one side of the issue - By late adolescents, individuals are better at multiple thinking and thinking of sides that are equally valid SLIDE 15 - Emerging adulthood shows relativism: trying to compare the merits of both sides and getting into what are the arguments and are they valid - By mid 20s, you enter into commitment, where you accept one side but you still remain open to reevaluation to your views if new evidence emerges - Maturation and education and forced to engaged in these types of thinking and just by virtue of these experiences, you’ll see improvements when making these kinds of judgments SLIDE 16 - Cognitive development through a series of stages - Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years; coordinate motor functions with sensory inputs - Preoperational stage: 2-6 years; when child becomes capable of representing the world symbolically - Concrete operational: 6-11 years - Formal operations: 11 years and above NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 17 - Cognition changes with age - Organismic theory - Interplay between biology and maturation and environment - Biological readiness of an individual and how much info and stimulation is in the environment - The demands of cognition in the environment - An 8 year old can’t learn what a 13 year old learns because the 8 year old is not biologically ready SLIDE 18 - Proceeding through a series of stages - Fixed sequence; all children will proceed through all those stages - The stages are qualitatively distinct; characterized by a specific mental structure or thought - Looks differently from proceeding and following one - In order to advance to next stage, must know how to master the mental structure of the previous - The stages are not continuous but abrupt changes at specific points throughout the lifespan SLIDE 19 - Mental manipulations - Conservation: knowing that things don’t change if you pour water from a short and fat cup to a tall and thin cup; the ability to correctly manipulate the task and evaluate - Influenced by experiences SLIDE 20 - Piaget argues that emergence of this reasoning is rather abrupt - Now you see it, now you don’t - In early adolescence, inconsistency of using hypothetical thinking where they may use it in one setting and not in the other - Making a difference between competence and performance SLIDE 21 - Empirical development have shown that development is continuous and gradually - There’s evidence of more individual differences than what Piaget proposes; there’s some adolescents who can use formal operations in a range of tasks of where some who don’t use it all or very limited tasks - Personality and education also plays a role because it will affect whether you will develop certain skills such as deductive reasoning - Depending on the environment in which whether you need or will use those mental operations - Nature of formal operations differ across culture - Ex. Inuit adolescent boys learn how to hunt and eventually learn how to hunt on their own; Inuit adolescent girls need to tan animal hide; culture influences how adolescents will use formal operations - But the stage of formal operation is universal SLIDE 22 - Unlike Piaget, they understand that changes is gradual and smooth across the lifespan - In addition, it’s componential whereas Piaget was more holistic - Different types of thinking processes
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