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Lecture 11

PSY310 Lecture 11 (April 1, 2013).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Simone Walker

NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - PSYCHOSOCIAL PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENCE SLIDE 2 - Today’s objectives SLIDE 3 - Obesity and disordered eating SLIDE 4 - Obesity - Most common eating disorder - Obesity have tripled in the last 30 years - Influences to obesity include genetic factors, environment factors such as diet and physical activity SLIDE 5 - Disordered eating - ¼ of American adolescents are unhappy with their body - Over ½ consider themselves overweight and have attempted to diet SLIDE 6 - Bulimia: eating a lot at one time and then vomiting it back out in order to avoid weight gain - Anorexia: constantly watching calories and doesn’t eat a lot in order to keep their weight down SLIDE 7 - Cultural factors such as slimness is the ideal physical female body and therefore it’s higher in western societies - Higher in high socioeconomic class because there’s emphasis on being slim in females - Gender roles and pressures from others - Girls who read certain magazines and other media consumption usually depicts a slim, thin ideal body type and thus more likely to show signs of disordered eating SLIDE 8 - Having over controlling family that puts psychological control that may increase disordered eating - One causal factor would be internalizing distress (turning stress inwards) and feelings of sadness, shame, that leads to those disordered eating SLIDE 9 - Adolescence in time of storm and stress assumption but it’s a misconception - Adolescents are not cause of problem behaviours, but roots in childhood - Most of these adolescents grow out of these problems in emerging adulthood so it’s transient in nature - Early research said substance use was externalizing problem but we’re going to talk about it differently - Turning symptoms inward instead of externalizing by acting out, turn inwards - comorbidity: co-occurrence of more than one problem - Things that are more likely to manifest together; common factor that internalize these disorders - Negative affectivity: very reactive to stressors, more vulnerable to internalizing disorders, SLIDE 10 - Most common disturbance in adolescents - Enduring period of sadness? SLIDE 11 - Depressed mood: sadness by itself; without any related symptoms - Depressive symptoms and syndromes: sadness that is accompanied with any symptoms of depression - Depressive disorder in the textbook: major depressive disorder with 5 or more of the following symptoms during a 2 week period and there’s a change of behaviour (look up in textbook) SLIDE 12 - Adolescents have more depressed mood compared to children and adults - Peak during mid-adolescence - Depressed mood is more common in adolescence than depressed disorder NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - There are some children who show depressed moods but it’s more common in adolescence SLIDE 13 - There are sex differences - Before adolescence, boys are more likely to be depressed - After puberty, girls are more likely to be depressed SLIDE 14 - Why are girls more depressed after puberty? - Females may be more susceptible to genetic influences and causes that play a role to depression - Conforming to gender roles, and part of the female role is to be passive, dependent and emotionally fragile - Females are more self conscious of their physical appearance and results to feelings of self shame - After puberty, females are drawing away from society’s ideal female body while it’s the opposite for males - Boys are likely to distract themselves from stress, while girls are likely to engage in rumination such as focusing on the problems and the stressors; rumination play a role in depressed mood - Females have higher level of oxytocin and they’re more sensitive to disruptions to family processes and peers or breakups and leads to onset of depression SLIDE 15 - Falling out with friends or conflicts with them or family members - Romantic breakups is the most reported source of depression in terms of males and females - Poor performance in school will also lead to depressed mood - There are less studies in emerging adulthood, SLIDE 16 - diathesis-stress model: when they’re predisposed (vulnerable and more potential) to internalizing problems, they will be exposed to chronic stressors and that will lead to depressive reaction - The vulnerability must be in place first SLIDE 17 - Certain genes may cause predispositions - The data come from results of twin studies - If both twins have it, there’s a high concordance rate - Higher in monozygotic twins, than in dizygotic twins and this would attribute to genes - Comparing adolescents with adoptive parents to biological parents; adolescents are more likely to develop depression if their biological parents are depressive - Individuals who show one or more disregulation in the different axes will more likely exhibit depression; HPA will also lead to heightened sensitivity of stress because it’s responsible for regulating cortisols SLIDE 18 - Predisposed to feel negatively - Adolescents more likely to perceive events as inevitable and things that they can’t control and they have tendency to view the world in a negative way that leads to susceptibility of internalizing problems - Rumination: tendency to ruminate events particularly negative events SLIDE 19 - diathesis has to coupled with stressors in order for the model to manifest - High conflicts in families or low cohesion which increases internalizing problems - Economic difficulties and also parental divorce that leads to disruption in family processes SLIDE 20 - Having fewer friends, unpopular and feelings of rejection by peers will lead to increased risk of depression - Self perpetuating - Pre-existing vulnerability that coupled with stressors will lead to depression NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 21 - Depressed teens are at greater risk of failing school, involved in delinquency and suicidal risks SLIDE 22 - Correcting the imbalance in serotonin levels but there should be close monitoring for those taking anti-depressants - Changing underlying cognition such as negative views of the world and changing behaviours such as how they respond to negative events - Changing patterns of family interactions and improving relationships SLIDE 23 - A lot of scientific study - Calati found that the most effective treatments were the combination of therapy and prozac SLIDE 24 - Thoughts of suicide and about half of those made serious attempts to suicide and thus needs treatments - Current suicide rates in the USA is 4x higher than in the 1950s SLIDE 25 - The risk of suicide is higher in depressed adolescents - Also having a family member who successfully committed suicide - Extreme family conflicts are risk factors that could increase suicide - Being under intense stress; actual stressors can vary, but it has to be categorized as intense stress - Treatment for suicide was similar to treating depression - However, biological therapy is not that effective unless coupled with cognitive therapy SLIDE 26 - When people are acting out such as aggression - High levels of comorbidity and co-occurrences SLIDE 27 - Problem behaviour syndrome: based on underlying factors, and unconventionality (not just personality, but social environment) and leads to risk taking behaviours - More likely to be deviants, breaking laws, but have weak ties to institutions - Unconventional personality may come from genetics, or biological and family - If their parents or siblings who have this problem, it may be related to genetics - Underline predisposition and thus co-occur SLIDE 28 - Not that there’s underlying cause, rather it’s the involvement of one problem behaviour leading to another problem behaviour - Cascading effects; adolescents engaging in bullying and then leads to substance use and abuse and then leads to delinquency; one problem can lead to another and that’s why it can co-occur and not because of underlying problems SLIDE 29 - This theory proposes that individuals who don’t have strong bonds, more likely to deviate and behave unconventionally - That’s why there’s high comorbidity and explains why there are more behavioural problems for poor inner city minority youths SLIDE 30 - Pattern of consistent antisocial behaviour that violates others leading to problems in school and work - Related to oppositional-defiant disorder - Persisting beyond the age of 18 and they will be diagnosed as having antisocial personality disorder - General lack of regard for moral and legal and social standards
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