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Lecture 8

PSY310 Lecture 8 (Mar 11, 2013).docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY310H5
Professor
Simone Walker
Semester
Winter

Description
NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - Identity and adolescence SLIDE 2 - Today’s objectives SLIDE 3 - Identity isn’t just who you are - It’s also made up of values, beliefs - Who you are and who you are as function as you play in society - Self-concept: contents of the self (values, morals, characteristics) - Self-esteem: how you evaluate yourself, how you measure up to certain standards, how you feel about yourself, how much you like/dislike yourself SLIDE 4 - Puberty changes how people change about themselves; changes in physical changes can influence how adolescents view themselves and also how other people respond to your changes and as a result reflect back on your behaviour to that attention - Around puberty, there’s increased distance in relationship between adolescents and parents - During adolescents, we engage in self reflection and self conception - Cognition changes: change in how you think and increased capacity in logical and deductive reasoning; metacognition (think about what you’re thinking); self consciousness (what you think and what other people think about you); adolescents are attune to how other people view them; adolescents are sensitive to what their peers say; who you’ll be and want to be; hypothetical thinking and thinking about the future; - Social changes: decisions that has to be made that determines the future events; - All these have important implications in the self identity SLIDE 5 - Children tend to define themselves with concrete terms (here and now); physical characteristics; possessions; preferences; self conceptions change dramatically across time and context because it depends on the current context of what they’re feeling - During adolescence, increase capacity of hypothetical and abstract thinking and therefore describe themselves with abstract traits; traits and descriptions of self are stable across time and situation; adolescents self concepts are more organized than children and it also becomes more complex; adolescents take context into account SLIDE 6 - Express different traits and characteristics depending on who they’re with and what they’re doing - Able to view themselves through the eyes of others and their self reflections reflect this - Think about different aspects of self - Actual self: who you are currently - Ideal self: who you want to be, who you aspire to be; taking accounts of aspirations and dreams - Ought self: who you should be according to external standards (parents, society) - Feared self: who you don’t want to be - May be psychologically advantageous and may provide them advantage over children - May not always find motivations between actual/ideal self, sometimes through the distance of actual self away from feared self - The larger the discrepancy between actual self and ideal self, there’s a negative affect and you’ll feel sad - Looking at the size of the discrepancy and the larger it gets, the more negative consequences such as depression - False self behaviour: impression management and embellish positive characteristics and downplay negative characteristics; presenting yourself in a not authentic way NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Has to realize the actual self before engaging in false self behaviour; as long as important values are still authentic, there won’t be much negativity experienced by adolescents SLIDE 7 - How self concepts can be different in terms of what situation - Conflicts in adolescents can be a source of concern for them, but as they get older, they can reconcile these differences and they know the reasons by rationalizing and justification of their behaviours in terms of context; some say it’s important part of understanding self identity SLIDE 8 - 5 basic characteristics that are universal - We can understand personality by gathering information from these 5 traits - How high and low is influenced by genes and environment SLIDE 9 - 40% in certain heritable traits - Different types of temperaments: easy or difficult (finicky, irritable, slow to warm up) - Temperaments may be early precursor to the 5 factor personality and then over time harden into personality - Nature of these traits change over development - Absolute stimuli don’t change (underlying behaviours with the world) SLIDE 10 - Whether or not the ranking in the population of people remain the same; as time goes on the rank order stay relatively the same - Ex. Height increase, but the order in comparison to peers will still stay the same - usually people get more extroverted, less neurotic, more conscientious - How one feels about themselves will also stay the same in terms of rank order amongst peers - There will be fluctuations though, kind of dip in middle adolescence depending on transitions or events happening to the adolescents - As they get older, adolescents feel of themselves may have consolidated and self esteem become more resistant to environmental factors SLIDE 11 - There are individual differences in terms of how much self esteem fluctuates - Some only fluctuates depending on context such as good/bad things - Self esteem fluctuates the most during middle adolescence (age 12-14); lower self esteem and more self conscious during this period compared to pre and late adolescence - Prone to feel ashamed of themselves and feel more self conscious SLIDE 12 - With puberty and cognitive changes, we’re more sensitive to people’s response to us - Adolescents is a time where people start to understand sarcasm and ridicule, and they also use this in their conversations with people - Adolescents are more sensitive to peer’s opinions - So how adolescents feel about themselves will vary greatly SLIDE 13 - This pattern didn’t emerge for all adolescents - Global self esteem is the gender role evaluation of yourself - Global self esteem tend to be more stable across time and context - State self esteem: depending on that moment of time NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Academic self esteem: how well you’re doing in school - Interaction self esteem: how your interactions are with peers and others - Physical self esteem: based on physical appearance - You only have to feel good about yourself in certain domain and then you’ll have positive feeling/liking for yourself in general - Don’t have to feel good about every single domain in order to feel good about yourself - Physical self esteem was the most important for adolescents, girls value it more than boys - Peer relationship self esteem was second, how adolescents felt about their interactions with their peers SLIDE 14 - Research have found gender differences - That dip in self esteem is greater in girls, than boys and also fluctuates more for girls - These differences go away as adolescents grow older - For girls, physical self esteem is especially more important; more conscious of her physical appearance during puberty and all the changes she would experience at the same time; as all her other peers catch up, it’s not that special anymore because everybody is going through the same thing - As a women, gaining weight that is different from the skinny ideal and therefore in the beginning, girls may be more self conscious of this change and decrease in self esteem - African Americans girls don’t experience that much self esteem drop in middle adolescence SLIDE 15 - Three reasons - They don’t feel negative about change in body; it’s because of the culture standards - Have higher self-esteem in general compared to other ethnic groups; they benefit from positive feedbacks in the community; focus on what you’re good at to increase the ego; - Have strong sense of ethnic identity SLIDE 16 - In the US, throughout 70s, 80s, 90s, a lot of money were put into programs about increasing girl’s self esteem - For Asian Americans, doing well in school is an important factor in developing high self esteem - Contingent self esteem: when you only like yourself when you live up to certain standards - People who have high contingent self esteem, they need things in place before they can like themselves - Adolescents who derive their self esteem from peers will have more behavioural problems - Parents play a major role in building high self esteem in adolescents - High self esteem correlated with positive outcomes doesn’t mean high self esteem causes these outcomes SLIDE 17 - More evidence that how you do in school will influence the adolescent’s self esteem and not exactly the other way around; reciprocal relationship in which both continues to influence each other - Having high self esteem will also increase adolescent’s overall well-being - Low self esteem is associated with deviant activities and distress - Just because low self esteem is correlated with negative outcomes doesn’t mean it causes it - Inflated self esteem: adolescents who really like themselves and showing narcissism also have more behavioural problems and worse peer relationships - Contingent self esteem is not good either because it is dependent on context; can become disengage or not be challenged in order to feel good about themselves SLIDE 18 - In response to not just biological, cognitive and social things NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - There are 8 psychosocial crises that a person may go through during adolescence and throughout the lifespan - Identity vs. Identity diffusion: main goal of navigating adolescence to develop coherent sense of self - Who you are as internal character
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