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Lecture 9

PSY310 Lecture 9 (Mar 18, 2013).docx

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Simone Walker

NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - Assignment 2 extended until April 1, 2013 - AUTONOMY IN ADOLESCENCE SLIDE 2 - OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY SLIDE 3 - Autonomy: more than just independence - Autonomy have three types - Development of autonomy begins in infancy: oppositional behaviour by saying “no” to everything - In adolescence, autonomy is more sophisticated and developed in more ways - Puberty: physical changes represent an incentive to develop autonomy; result in other people treating them like adults and calls for more responsibilities and independence; involves emotional independence with increase bickering with parents and shifting emotional dependency from parents to friends and lovers - Cognitive: during adolescence, time when new cognitive abilities are available, thinking abstractly and reflect upon own values and attitudes and differentiate between their own versus their parents; increase perspective taking; take other people’s perspectives and now turn to friends + parents and ask for their opinions and then compare both and weigh the benefits and consequences - Social: different privileges when they’re adolescents and different opportunities that calls for the development of autonomy and ultimately, new privileges means more responsibilities and be able to regulate emotions and subject to different set of laws and develop sophisticated means of willfully take part in actions - These things set the stage for autonomy - Autonomy is not limited to adolescence, it still continues to develop across the lifespan - Throughout adulthood, also develop autonomy through different opportunities SLIDE 4 - 3 different ways of conceptualizing autonomy - Emotional autonomy: establishment of adult like and less child like relationships with family and peers; no longer to turning to parents for sole mean of support; being able to form adult like relationships with non-family members based on mutuality (peers and romantic partners) - Behavioural autonomy: capacity to make independent decisions and follow through with them; being able to think of long term consequences - Cognitive autonomy: isn’t just thinking about independently, involves much more than that; developing independent set of values, beliefs and opinions; in childhood, follow the parents’ views, but in adolescence, develop their own and reflect on their parents’ and other people’s values - Autonomy is not simply independence SLIDE 5 - Relative to children and early adolescence, adolescence are more likely to turn to friends for help - Still most likely financially dependent on the parents though; conflicts between the adolescent’s self view of autonomy and parent’s view of their autonomy - In our society, adolescents are finding it harder to be financially independent because they’re staying longer in school and may not be able to get a job just yet - De-idealization, no longer see their parents as wise and all powerful - Late adolescence invest more emotional resources in non-family relationships; spending less time with family and more time with peers which develops emotional autonomy - Likely to see their parents as people; Trying out different social roles and setting up our identity and being parents is one of those roles and so they start to understand their parents and that they have other roles too; adolescents start to be emotional support and comfort for NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. their parents as well - These changes reflect on the adult-child relationships SLIDE 6 - Why emotional autonomy develops - Traditional view from the psychoanalytic theory - Unconscious stage that we have to overcome in order to go on to the next stage - All about the influence of puberty; physical changes that disrupt family relationships; categorize adolescents as going through storm and stress - Trigger awakening psychosexual conflicts that the individual has suppressed; attachment to opposite sex parent and then displacing to other non-family member of society; also hostility to same sex parent - Resolving the tension of the psychic distress of the past psychosexual conflicts; one way of doing this is to separate emotionally from one’s parent SLIDE 7 - Separating from one’s parents is called detachment and also separate emotionally - According to this view, a lot of conflicts between parents and adolescence is normal - The research does not support the view that adolescence is a time of storm and stress - Research support that it’s not severing but transformation of those emotional bonds - Severing ties is associated with more psychological problems actually - This is the traditional and classic way SLIDE 8 - Their sense of themselves as an autonomous independent person - Gradual sharpening in which it begins in infancy until adulthood to develop individuation - Doesn’t involve turmoil, the storm and stress; gradual acceptance of responsibilities for the choices and actions taken SLIDE 9 - How to measure it? - They de-idealize their parents as not all knowing, powerful or perfect and seeing them as people who can make mistakes - They start seeing their parents as people and see their roles that they belong to and not just the role as a parent - Adolescents depending on themselves and not on their parents for emotional support and aid in process of individuation - Ask the adolescence of how individuation do they feel, independence and autonomy - Around gr.5 to gr. 9, all four indexes started low, but over the course of adolescence, start to feel more independent and away from their parents; the only index that did not increase was seeing their parents as people so it means this aspect begins later in adolescence SLIDE 10 - Empirical support for emotional autonomy of individuation and that it is gradual procession - Connectedness and ties with parents is important for development emotional autonomy - Adolescents who feel emotional autonomous and not close with parents have more psychological problems such as anxiety and depression - Parents who are psychologically controlling which means they are intrusive and control their thoughts and actions and overprotection are associated with deficit in poor autonomy in their adolescence; associated with increases psychological dysfunctions; when parents have too much control, not giving the adolescents freedom and develop autonomy and so the adolescents are kept close to the parent - Parents who use enabling behaviour are parents who accept their adolescence and help them to clarify and openly discuss the adolescent’s view and let them fully express their views without fear of punishment - Parents who use constricting behaviour are those parents are likely to interrupt adolescents and devalue their views and use sarcasm - Adolescents who develop autonomy are helped by having parents that allowed enabling behaviour - Development of emotional autonomy is more sophisticated NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 11 - Authoritative parents allow adolescents to make their own decisions and authoritative parenting gradually let their adolescents have more autonomy and thus adolescents will have higher emotional autonomy - Authoritarian: low warmth, the rules are set in stone and does not allow adolescents make their own decisions and therefore they have lower emotional autonomy; low affection will cause the adolescent to rebel and as an act of frustration of not being able to make decisions for themselves - Indulgent parents: are sensitive to adolescents needs and give lots of freedom; adolescents have very little experience with conforming and following rules so it makes it hard for them to follow rules of society; have issues with new rules that defines be
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