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Lecture 10

PSY310 Lecture 10 (Mar 25, 2013).docx

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Simone Walker

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NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - Assignment 1 is finally graded - The average was 74 - INTIMACY AND SEXUALITY SLIDE 2 - OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY SLIDE 3 - Maintenance of interpersonal relationships - Individual’s compatibility of intimacy - Involves caring, sharing and express affections - Involves knowledge, knowing information about each other and high degree of self disclosure, thoughts, feelings and secrets; honesty and openness and trust in which you can reciprocate these information - Involves us with mutuality and inclusion of the other in the self; include aspects of other person in our self concept - Intimacy involves commitment and investment to make the relationship last; lots of effort to maintain the relationship - Involves interdependency; awareness, understanding and recognition that what you do depends on the other person and vice versa; mutual influence - Casual relationships doesn’t have most of these concepts and characteristics SLIDE 4 - Intimacy spans the life span and develop early on - In adulthood, even maintaining intimacy is still a concern; adolescent is the prime time for the development of intimacy due to transitions that occur in adolescence - Puberty increases sex hormones and create sexual attraction and engaging in sexual behaviour - Secondary sexual characteristics and may be important factor for attracting others to you and it also signals you’re becoming an adult - Cognitive transitions: emerging ability to think abstractly and hypothetically to develop intimacy; able to see from another person’s eyes; how we think about the social world and social relationships; set the stage for intimacy - Social transitions: adolescents are afforded different privileges and not just same sex peers but also opposite sex pairs; cliques and changes in the social context SLIDE 5 - Has been an important topic - Contemporary researchers don’t make use of Sullivan’s theory anymore, but it has been influential and shape how we think about adolescents and intimacy - Emphasizes the social aspect of growth - Organismic theory looking at interplay between biological and social context to understand psychological development - This theory focuses on social relationship at different points of development - Focus on transformation that takes place in social interactions throughout development; development is set by different interpersonal needs and whether the adolescents are satisfied by the current need and intimacy in order to continue to develop SLIDE 6 - infancy: need for contact and tenderness; allows for a lot of physical proximity and contact; responsiveness too - Early childhood: satisfying need for adult participation; more sophisticated form of interaction; all about adults involving in playing with children - Middle childhood: instead of family and parents, it’s all about turning to peers for satisfaction for interpersonal needs especially in the form of acceptance; forming friendships NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 7 - preadolescence: all about need for intimacy and shared about who you are, secrets and share affections and develop mutuality and trust; developing same sex relationships and validation of who you are - Early adolescence: need for sexual contact and intimacy with opposite sex peers; foster these relationships; nowadays it’s done in the context that are romantic or non-romantic and not just exclusively between opposite sex peers, so romantic relationships is needed for development in that case - Late adolescence: integrate into adult society, SLIDE 8 - attachment: strong, long lasting emotional tie - Argued that we’re all born with attachment system and that it’s universal - Survival advantage to be kept close to their caregiver and so there’s an innate behaviour in us to be close to caregivers; clinging so there’s close attachment to caregiver - Help us to create a working model of how other people are like and allow us to come up with expectations of how other people are going to be like - Early interactions are going to affect how you behave in later relationships - Not all infants have the same attachment to caregivers, there’s individual differences - Strange situation paradigm: the parent and child playing - Separation stage and reunion stage - Secure: infants who cry when they notice their mom wasn’t there and then they were happy when the mother came back; easily consolable - Avoidant: anxious avoidant, didn’t really cry when their mom wasn’t there and during reunion, they didn’t seem to be happy that she’s back either - Anxious resistant: cry when their mother had left and upon reunion, they continue to be upset; they are hard to console and also act avoidant (so both proximity seeking and proximity avoidant) - Disorganized: confused when mom left and continued to be confused when the mom comes back - Do these infant attachment have an impact on social relationships when you’re an adolescent? According to them, yes. Will also start to see other people as a source of people they can rely on or not - For secure adolescent, trust people and rely on others - For avoidant adolescent, not depending on others and can’t be trusted, high degree of independence - For anxious adolescent, inconsistent behaviour and don’t know how to act - Interpersonal development is cumulative and early stages will affect later stages SLIDE 9 - Asking certain questions to classify into adult styles - Anxiety of abandonment: how concern are they about someone leaving them - Avoidance of intimacy: how much do they avoid being intimate - Secure: who are low on avoidance and low on anxiety; not concerned that partner will leave them and they don’t avoid getting close - Preoccupied: who are high on anxiety and low on avoidance of intimacy; smother others in romantic relationships; very clingy in relationships and also keep you close; don’t tend to have positive relationships; original belief elicit a certain behaviours and then elicit certain response from others - Fearful: high on anxiety and high on avoidance of intimacy; don’t get into relationships because they fear one day people will leave them anyways - Dismissive: low on anxiety and high on avoidance of intimacy; have casual and superficial relationships; unconcern about getting close NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Time consuming and expensive; the studies result are not consistent; just because infant attachment style shows one thing, doesn’t mean it’ll be the same in adulthood - Causality concerns; need to do experiments and experimentally make certain infants develop certain attachment styles - Role of experience; adult attachment is variable and can change with experience - A person can have different attachment styles to different types of people - Quality of interactions in early infancy will have a role in later social relationships SLIDE 10 - Childhood relationships: tend to be people you play with, organized with liking to do the similar activities, based on concrete things, intimate mutual sharing  intimate in terms of the interactions between sharing of the two people and not like the intimacy that we were talking about - Adolescence: place more on abstract dimensions  loyalty, trust, cooperation; autonomous interdependence: some independence that characterizes adolescent friendships in which people can have their own friends that don’t have to be your friends and understanding each people have their own choice; - Friendships are more dynamic and more changeable in adolescents and because it’s less organized by shared activities - In adolescents, tend to turn to our friends and more so than childhood; safe haven, having someone to talk to and turn to and also serve proximity seeking function and attachment need SLIDE 11 - How we express intimacy in relationships - Knowledge about friends in childhood are mainly surface details, but in adolescents, you’re more likely to know about personal details and intimate details and this only develops in self reflection and introspection so that we’re able to share that to other people and for them to also understand us - Adolescents relationship also show more care and concern and also responsive to their friends’ needs, and not just physically responsive, but also psychologically responsive ; childhood could do that too, but it’s not as sophisticated - Adolescents relationships are lot less controlling and a lot more tolerant of friend’s individuality - Adolescents are more likely to use negotiation strategy that is mutually beneficial instead of forcing the other person to give in SLIDE 12 - We do not replace intimacy with parents with intimacy with peers and then later with opposite sex peers, but it’s not the case - Don’t replace old targets with new ones, but new targets are added to old ones and all important predictor of positive and psychological development - Good for development of intimacy in which there are more targets and relationships added - Intimacy with peers of opposite sex replace with same sex friends; what’s supported is that we usually develop intimacy with same sex peers before developing intimacy with opposite sex peers - The graph shows an example of how different intimacy levels changes throughout early life; not that old targets are replaced, but new targets are added SLIDE 13 - Adolescents do experience different types of intimacy with their parents, friends and romantic partners - Parent adolescent relationship is more of power imbalance and in which conflicts usually means that someone such as the parent will win; also the parent will tend to give advice and other things but as the adolescents grow older, they’re able to give advice to the parent; adolescents can learn information and skills - Adolescent peer relationship: tend to be more equal and mutual balanced and emotional support; not by learning opportunities but opportunities to share experiences with SLIDE 14 - Moving from same sex cliques to mixing with opposite sex cliques to form mixed sex crowd NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Can be quite anxiety provoking and emerging of sexuality and manifest in certain behaviour; semi-sexual of playful touching, etc; - Cross sex intimacy does not replace same sex intimacy - Cross sex friendships does not serve the same function but it sets the
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