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PSY311 Lecture 5

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

PSY311: February 11 and 12, 2013 The Self  Self Awareness – a social structure which arises through social experiences (Mead, Lewis) o Self Permanence o Self Reflection o Categorical (Sex, age)  Self Concept – cognitive aspect of the self – the subjective knowledge we have of ourselves as psychological and physical beings o Can refer to looks, personality, skills, degree to which one is liked o Psychological, social, physical o Varies across cultures, families (depends on values, beliefs)  For example, having an education is important  Some consistent across borders (universal)  Great emphasis on certain characteristics  Are NOT stable, tend to change as the child gets older with the development of cognition  Ideal self: the self we want to be  True self: objective self that we are, usually lower than our ideal self  Subjective self concept: is usually not consistent with our true self or ideal self (most of us are not perfect)  Self-Esteem – an individual’s feelings of his/her own worthiness and competence o Depends a lot on who that comparison group is o Not necessarily static, it could change in certain circumstances (childhood neglect and abuse)  Emotional Self – self evaluations normally results in the production of affect Stages in the Development of Self-Awareness in the First Two Years:  0-3 months: Interest in social objects, not no self-other distinction  3-8 months: First signs of self-recognition, based on contingency clues, but still tentative and unreliable o Contingency clue: what the child sees in real time when looking in a mirror o Rouge Test: place red dot on child’s nose and see if the child notices when looking in a mirror  8-12 months: Emergence of self-permanence. Recognition of self through contingency. Emergence of feature recognition o Get through the rouge test easily  12-24 months: Consolidation of basic self-categories (age, gender, ect.) Feature recognition without contingency (and with contingency) Developmental Changes in Self Concept: From To Description of Change 1 Simple Differentiated Younger children from global concepts; older children make finer distinctions and allow for circumstances 2 Inconsistent Consistent Younger children are more likely to change their self-evaluations; older children appreciate the stability of the self-concept – goes both ways (may give up because of one set back but also may overestimate) 3 Concrete Abstract Younger children focus on external, visible, physical aspects; older children focus on internal, invisible, psychological aspects 4 Absolute Comparative Younger children focus on self without reference to others; older children describe themselves in comparison with others 5 Self-as-public Self-as-private Younger children do not distinguish between private feelings and public behavior; older children consider private self as “true self” - Cultural and cohort differences Self Esteem – Coopersmith (1968):  Significance – how much is a person loved and approved by others  Competence – how well does a person perform tasks he or she considers to be important o Culturally differs  Virtue – to what extent does a person feel he or she has attained the expected moral standards f their culture o Sometimes due to parents, sometimes things the child cannot control  Power – how well and to what extent can a person control him/herself and his/her influence on others o Not
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