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Lecture 6

PSY311 Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Soc311 – February 25 2013 Writing A Research Paper: Write a review paper that provides an answer to a research question in developmental psychology The answer is: • Comprehensive/exhaustive • Specific The Process: 1. Narrow down a topic into a clear research question 2. Find articles that answer the question 3. Modify the question based upon what research exists/what you found to be relevant 4. Choose the best articles that answer the question 5. Decide about the order of articles that will create a coherent flow and contribute to the integration of material Research is an iterative process: • Select • Evaluate • Revise Working through the Research Process: 1. How do we narrow down a topic into a clear research question? • Selecting a Topic: i. Select an issue or theme that fits the course and is of interest to you ii. Ensure there is enough information to write a comprehensive review (don’t be too specific at this point) iii. Example by Dr. Werhun 1. Initial Topic: Sex Role Development in Children 2. What interests you: The influence of Role Models on Sex Role Development in Children 3. Define role models. Who are they? a. Parents/Teachers/Peers 4. Potential Research Questions: Since children spend a large part of their day at school, are teachers a stronger influence on sex role development than parents? 5. Identify the factors you need to investigate so that you can begin answering your Research Question: a. Since children spend a large part of their day at school, are teachers a stronger influence on sex role development than parents? 2. How to find articles that answer the question? • Select initial keyword groups. Remember to cover the factors key to your Research Question: i. “Gender roles” OR “sex roles” ii. ((gender OR sex) AND role*) iii. gender and (socialization OR role*) • Format searches in PsychINFO and other major psychology or science databases. i. Build searches based on THESAURAS TERMS: ii. This includes synonyms and rejects unwanted terms; iii. It helps to make the search exhaustive iv. Use all the terms you identified. Your searches are exhaustive if they are seeing same articles repeatedly • Format searches in PsychINFO and other major psychology or science databases i. If you are getting too many results (this will happen in Scopus!), select the REVIEW ARTICLE limit. ii. Review articles are secondary sources, but they are great resources for understanding what research has been done in the field iii. Use the references in review articles • Rule of thumb: i. Good exploratory search: approx 50-200 peer reviewed articles ii. More than 500 too broad less than 50 too narrow 3. Contact: • Dr. Michael DeBraga, RGASC i. [email protected] • Joanna Szurmak, HMALC Library i. [email protected] Sex Role Development Developmental Timeline: • Infancy – distinguish faces by sex • 2 years – label by sex • 3 years – sex-stereotyping in toy preference o See it despite egalitarian influences • 4 years – some rigid stereotypes about occupations • 5 years – association of personality traits with sex Key Definitions: • Sex – biological dimension of being male or female (more of a continuum – way we are born) • Gender – Socio-cultural dimension of being male or female o Learned, socialized by culture • Gender role – set of expectations that prescribe how females and males should think, act, and feel • Gender Role Stereotypes – broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males – image of what typical male and female would be like o The typical male or female – prone to error How do children display gender roles? • Toy preferences – by age 3 a clear pattern of choices emerges, although boys develop this pattern quicker than girls o More acceptable for girls to go against gender norms • Personality Characteristics – from 2 to 3 years of age boys are consistently more aggressive o Girls tend to catch up with difficulty at teenage years • Choice of playmates – between 1-6 years of age there is a steep increase in choice of same sex playmates • Psychological and behavioral differences between boys and girls becomes greater during early adolescents Gender Role Orientation: High Male Low Male High Female Androgynous Feminine Low Female Masculine Undifferentiated Regardless of what your sex is you may have stereotypical feminine, masculine, androgynous, or undifferentiated traits (Bem 1974, 1981) • For both male and female, androgyny is the best indicator for being well adjusted (the masculine traits within this are usually the best indicator) • Clear separation between sex and gender Gender Roles: Theoretical Explanations: 1. Evolution/Sociobiology 2. Social reasons (Learning and Social Learning) 3. Psychoanalytic Theory 4. Cognitive Development Theory 5. Gender Schema Theory (combination of 2 and 4) 1. Evolution/Sociobiology: • Males and females have different purposes in life and behave accordingly. Their genetic endowment is responsible for their different behaviours just as it is responsible for their different physical characteristics o Not only physical but biological differences as well o Can work to overcome these but it is very hard to do this 2. Social Reasons: • From an early age different parental expectations and treatment (David & Brannon, 1976) o Males taught about stronger gender roles o NO SISSY STUFF – encourage boys to be as different from girls as possible o BE A BIG WHEEL – teaches boys to be superior and competitive with others o BE A STURDY OAK – male independence and self reliance, not to show emotions and weakness o GIVE ‘EM HELL – be aggressive and ruthless/violent • Very strong expectations, sometimes negative and sometimes positive • How do these messages work? o Learning theory (reinforcement principles)  Punishment reduces the likelihood of that action occurring again o Social learning theory (imitation)  Model is much more important than the action portrayed o Probably not that simply because of:  Biological/physiological differences  Unlikely to be based on simple learning mechanism  Little evidence that children select sam
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