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Lecture 7

PSY311 Lecture 7

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Stuart Kamenetsky

PSY311 – Parenting and Socialization Socialization - The transmission of standards of any given society from one generation to the next o Includes many components: cognitive, rational skills, social components, emotion (how to react and to what extent, who you can express your feelings to), cultural components (religion, food) - Traditional theoretical/philosophical approaches as to why and how this takes place: o The child is born complete and needs to be left alone to develop (child is active)  Slow parenting approach where the child is left to develop on their own with little parenting and support o The child is born a blank slate and everything needs to be taught (the child is passive) o The child is born bad and needs to be corrected resulting in constant conflict in the process  Teaching skills associated with this style require a lot of discipline  Frontal lobe (for impulses) is very late developing  However, the child gets better and better regardless of how the parent treats the child o Mutual adaptation between parent and child, where both play an active part  ALL of these provide some understanding and insight into how development works Legal Implications of Parental Responsibility to Socialize - Pagliocca et Al. 1995 - Parental responsibility to socialize their children is elusive and ill defined o No clear rules about parenting and least trained for it - Parents responsibilities are rooted in society’s interest in the healthy socialization of children as citizens and workers - Most parents never come into contact with the law about such issues, but socialization “failures” can become a legal problem What are Parental Legal Duties? - Pagliocca et al, 1995 1. Schooling - Parents and school system usually agree about values o Parents can have some role in the education process - Home Schooling: in most places you need to get approval for this o Some criticisms for public schooling: access to negative role models and negative influences - Children with Disabilities 2. Discipline - For the most part the state does not get involved unless there is some signs of physical abuse (emotional abuse is harder to prove) - Legal System may get involved if parents: o Cannot control their children’s public behaviour o Cannot control their own behaviour in the course of disciplining their children while in public - Legal system may get involved when children misbehave even if this does not constitute an actual crime - Parents are, sometimes, the complainants in such cases o What little trust the child may have left ,will be gone and the child may feel like they have no one - In some states courts can hold parents responsible for failing to socialize their children if: o Parent fails to comply with a court order to assume particular parental responsibilities o The parent contributes to the delinqiuncy of a minor o Legal liability for damages caused by their children o New laws in some jurisdictions – parents are directly responsible for their children’s delinquent offences - Parents, however, are not told what they should do to appropriately socialze their children - In many cases, despite “good” parenting, children, due to socialization from sources outside of the family, become juvenile delinquents Parenting: - Reciprocal influence between parents and children - Origin of parental behaviour: o Universal attributes o Culture-specific attributes o Individual attributes - Parental belief systems: what parents think about parenting is just as important as what they actually do as parents Parenting Styles: - Variation in parental behavior within culture - Important to remember that child’s temperament and context of development will have a strong influence on parenting style - Two important dimensions are: o Permissiveness/restrictiveness o Warmth/hospitality Combinations of these two dimensions can result in the following parenting styles: Permissiveness Restrictiveness Warmth Democratic Overprotective Hostility Neglecting Authoritarian Baumrind’s Parenting Styles: - Authoritarian – high expectations, little support - Permissive – low expectations, lots of support - Authoritative – high expectations, lots of support - Rejecting/neglecting: low expectations, little support Short Comings of Parenting Style Research: - Other factors, such as SES may cause both parenting style and outcome for
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