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PSY311 Mar25.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

PSY311 – March 25 2013 Peers : - Vertical and horizontal relationships o Usually the same age, do not necessarily have to be best friends o Horizontal: same age, vertical: peers different in age but not by much - Orderly developmental sequences are found in children’s interaction with peers - Category systems have been created to describe individual differences in the nature of relationships children have - Nature of early peer relationships could predict later psychological adjustment - Friendships fulfill a number of important functions which change according to age - Mutual influences exist between children’s family and peer relationships, especially in terms of how parental actions affect the nature and amount of contact with peers o Parents have a lot of control, some take a much more authorative approach while others are very lenient Child and Adult Companions at Different Ages - Over time, adult companions decline significantly in terms of observations - Opposite is true for peer interactions - Peer interactions starts to decrease (but still stay high): might be because they are developing individually - Adult companion interactions remains low, which is perfectly healthy Developmental Trends: - Children’s relationships with peers are determined by: o Temperament (sociability)  Children that are very easy going will have a better time with peers o Past experience with age mates  Lots of research in day cares  These experiences may produce negative traits o Familiarity of partner o Existence of friendships  First friendships can be prototypical, can be a general idea of what a friend is, what they are good for, how they have to behave o Circumstances (tasks, toys, adults, functions) o Most important: Developmental Stage  Depends upon their chronological age, knowledge of self, knowledge of others o Over time these interactions become more frequent, sustained, complex, intimate, and cohesive Developmental Trends: Infants (first year) - At 3 months – interest in other babies o Child developing slightly better visual acuity, signs of empathy - After 6 months – unreciprocated approaches (handing out toys, no eye contact, no return of object) - Difficulty – linking behaviour to that of partner; social contacts are largely one-way affairs Developmental Trends: Toddlers (second year onwards) - Peer relationships – more frequent and complex o See each other more, mother wants to get out more with the child, much more opportunity - Reciprocal play is frequent o Children are very honest and parents have to be careful (a lot of touching), babbling to one another - Incorporation of toys into activities (toy and partner at same social activity) - Some differentiation and adjustment to nature of companion Developmental Trends: Preschoolers (ages 3-5) - Symbolic play and development of verbal skills o Having partners for symbolic play is good for the child - Communication of meaning, shari
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