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Lecture 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY311H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Semester
Summer

Description
Constructing First Relationships  The emergence of the first relationship is fascinating and may be a prototype for all subsequent relationships  Moms have to be around for the child. They have to breast-feed and take care of them. Dads may not do much. So primary relationship occurs with mom.  Very fascinating time for parents, and very CRUCIAL to infants  The younger the child is, the more changeable the child’s NS is so the first type of relationship is very important to wire up the NS for life and build further relationships  We infer relationship from interactions but the sum of interactions does not equal a relationship  Interaction = you can see it!  Relationship = you can’t see it. It’s a psychological construct. Stages of Interactional Development: Biological regulation (0 months)  Developmental Task: To regularize the infant’s basic biological processes and to harmonize them with parental requirements Face-to-face exchanges (2 months)  Developmental Task: To regulate mutual attention and responsiveness in face to face situations  Now baby is stronger, heavier, more physically able. Baby is sitting comfortably in his chair (45 degrees), which allows parents and siblings to hover over and interact and look at baby in the eye….he starts to smile (not a social smile, but biologically driven), he is cute so we naturally go to him and talk to him and stimulate baby  Regulate attention and responsiveness – so attention and responsiveness don’t happen at the same time – people don’t pay attention all the time, take turns talking, etc.  Direct eye-to-eye contact (child’s visual skills are getting better, better acuity)  We start to see the first social smiles…sequential: parent smiles, the child smiles back (cause-and-affect)  Child is able to discriminate between different people by scanning the entire face, and focus  Beginning of the development of turn-taking, especially in vocal exchanges (ex mom: Johnny you are so cute! Baby: smiles, and say utterance) Topic sharing (5 months)  Developmental Task: to incorporate objects into social interactions and ensure joint attention and action to them  3 party objects are brought in the picture. Example: child is in chair or on floor sitting up because now its stronger and can hold head up, memory is better. Mom gives him a block, he stares at it, drops it and out of sight out of mind (object permanence has not come yet). Child is so fascinated by toys, especially if they are brightly coloured or shiny.  Infants turns to manipulation of objects rather than solely parents. Can pay attention to only one thing at a time, but not both at once.  Infant encourages infant object adult situations…ex baby and parent looking at each other, gives block to parent, child stares at it and puts it into his mouth and then mom asks for it back “Johnny give me the block back” and holds out hand and gently pulls in a bit  2-way communication involving a third party. Reciprocity (8 months)  Developmental Task: To initiate intentional actions directed at others and develop more flexible and symmetrical relationships  Child takes more responsibility – child becomes reciprocal partner with parents and others (lifelong process)  Get purposeful intentional actions directed at others. More flexible and intentional communication. We take turns in talking, smiling, etc. Flexibility – its not always going to be like my turn, your turn, my turn, your turn…turn taking depends on social situations! Ex. Have to let friend talk if they have something important to say and you listen, etc.  Gradually learning to communicate in a manner more adult-like  Coordination of several activities: child can be communicating with parents while manipulating object, or picking up toys and handing it to his parents. See initiation, reciprocity, coordination of different activities and joint attention on parent and object  Parents play fun games with the child that also teach conventional social skills and rules such as turn-taking and repetition. Games entail a lot of repetition: basis of linguistic communication  Peek-a-boo…..very elementary version: mom covers face, “where is mommy?” child is staring, q
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