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PSY311 Lecture 1.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Simone Walker

PSY311 Lecture 1: Introduction and Research Methods January, 6, 2014 - Tests: 40 MC (textbook), 10 Definitions, ¾ short answer (lecture material) o Previous tests! - Assignment: research paper What is Social Development? - Branch of developmental psychology (now: a major theme/approach in research rather than a branch) - Sub-field that studies: o “Changes over time in the child’s understanding of attitudes toward, and actions with others”.  Age not a causal factor, can only study change over time  How/why attitudes and relationships with other kids change o Stanley Hall, ‘Father’ofAmerican Psychology studied: “the small child’s activities and feelings, control of emotions and will”.  What are the various different triggers of emotions - Includes affective, cognitive, and social aspects of development - Social psychology focuses on how we relate to others and how others influence our behaviours, feelings and thoughts. o Doesn’t focus on children, change over time o Looks at adults today o Sociology: the who, rather than the individual. Psychology: individual differences Why are Children Studied? - Because of interest in children (questions such as ‘what is my child supposed to do at age X?’). o Do we have the right expectations of them at the age they are at? Designing curriculums o Practical implications (schooling, discipline) o Theoretical implications (language acquisition). - Because of an interest in adults (questions about the nature and product of development – in order to understand why adults behave the way they do). o Mother’s depressed: what kind of impact did that have on me? o Does childhood matter? If so, how? Historical Perspective - Evolutionary development of the field o Concerned for child bringing and education has always been there (ex: Bible), how parenting affects children o 19 century: study of childhood scientifically using the scientific method  Charles Darwin: baby biographies - Three periods of social development research: o Emergence (1870s – 1900s): baby biographies (Darwin, Hall) – same questions as today but different methods  Systematic observation o Middle period (1900s – 1960s)  Maturationalist approach: chart and describe the unfolding of endowed characteristics • chart the sequence, when do they happened and how long do they take • assuming that its all biologically driven and it’s going to unfold whether we intervene or not (ex. Puberty) and were simply going to chart and describe how it happens  Environmentalist approach: Watson (behaviourism) – experimentally and objectively determine how the child learns • Less correlational research and more experimental • Objective observers vs. baby biographies (inclined to present own child well). • Strong approach on behavior rather than making inferences  Socialization: psychoanalytic and sociological theory – how do adults contribute to child growth and development • Environment o Modern Era (1960s – today)  Structuralist approach: Piaget, Kohlberg – social processes are important and
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