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PSY310 Lecture 1 January 6.docx

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Simone Walker

PSY310 Lecture 1 January 6, 2014 Mid-Term Test: 30% • 40 multiple-choice questions (1 point each) • 5 out of 6 short answer questions (12 points each) • Lectures 1-5, assigned readings, videos • No lecture after midterm Final Exam: 35% • 40 multiple-choice questions (1 point each) • 5 out of 6 short answer questions (12 points each) • Lectures 6-11,assigned readings, videos Assignment 1 • 15% • Two article summaries • 4 pages double-spaced MAXIMUM (not including title page and reference list) • No reviewed articles, meta-analysis, dissertations/thesis. • Only empirical journal articles Assignment 2 • 20% • Critique paper • 4 pages double-spaced MAXIMUM (not including title page and reference list) - Can use 9 edition of book but make sure that the chapters line up! What isAdolescence? - Adolescere o To grow into adulthood  Time of growing up  From immaturity to maturity  Preparation for the future (adulthood and adult roles)  Period of transition  Less clear when adolescence begins and ends. - Adolescence: period of change - Transitions: biological (puberty), cognitive, social (changes in social status, being viewed and treated as an adult). - Boundaries of adolescence - Table 1.1 (pp.6) o Biological o Emotional (detach emotionally from parents) o Cognitive o Interpersonal o Social o Educational (middle/junior high and ends when you finish high school) o Legal o Chronological (specific age when adolescence begins and ends) o Cultural (preparing for some ceremonial right of passage). o Different criteria for difference researchers o Difficult to say when adolescence begins and ends - Typical boundaries that researchers use: o EARLYADOLESCENCE  Ages 10-13 o MIDDLEADOLESCENCE  Ages 14-17 o LATEADOLESCENCE  Ages 18-21 o EMERGINGADULTHOOD  Early to mid-20s  Distinct from the other stages  Characterized by the feeling of being in between (not truly an adolescent, not truly an adult).  Focusing on the self, exploring different identities, future possibilities can be explored  Also a time of instability, financial instability  Most mobile in terms of where they live History ofAdolescence • Ancient times th th • Ex. Plato &Aristotle (4 & 5 centuries B.C.) • Plato:Argued that adolescence is the third life stage and it is the time when the individual acquires the capacity for reasoning and rational thought (14-20 years old). Thus only after the age of 14 should children be introduced to sciences/critical thought. • Aristotle: prior to the age of 14 children act upon their impulses and it takes the entirety of adolescence to make rational decisions • Middle Ages • Few historical records on adolescence • Ex. SaintAugustine’s Confessions (A.D. 400): acting upon one’s impulses/passion • Adulthood is characterized by behaving more rationally • Ex. The “Children’s Crusade” (1212): pilgrimage made by children to the holy land (13 – 16 years old). • Wanting to spread the message of innocence • Children were beaten/killed/sold into slavery • 1500 to 1890 o Ex. Life-cycle service: children would leave their home and enter the home of their master (7 years approx.)Ameans of socializing young people about adults and what adults do.  Girls entered the house of another and worked as a servant • 1890-1920 • Ex. The “Age of Adolescence”  Industrialization happened, changed the nature of adolescence and defined adolescence as a separated stage (before it was simply adults of young people).  Working in factories: unsafe conditions, less wage  Labor laws: adults were competing for jobs with adolescents, thus the laws were made to protect children from the unsafe working conditions and exclude them from working.  Formal education was developed because of industrialization  Researchers started to become interested in adolescents History ofAdolescent Development (1904 – 1970s) - G. Stanley Hall’s Adolescence (1904) o First text solely devoted to adolescence o First researcher to state the fluctuations in hormones during puberty (ex. Sleeping late). o First to propose that depression would peak during adolescence  Nativist (or Split) view of change  Nature versus Nurture - “Grand” theories of development across the lifespan o Theories that said that it’s either nature or nurture that drives development, very few of them propose that there is an interaction of both together. o Biological o Organismic o Learning o Sociological o Historical/Anthropological - Biological o G. Stanley Hall’s Theory of Recapitulation (1904)  The development of the individual parallels the development of the human species  Adolescence is a period of “storm and stress” akin to the civilization stage of human development  Development of the individual is determined by instinct (biological and genetic forces) , not environment  Therefore unavoidable!  Period of storm and stress, upheaval. Period of change.  Development driven by biological influences  Therefore storm and stress are unavoidable • Biological • Problem with focusing exclusively on Hall’s (1904) biological reductionism and deficit view of adolescence • Reductionist’s theories focus on the sub-parts • Simplistic • Deficit view: children lack certain things, ex. Lack the ability to reason rationally. • Structures simply mature during adolescence (no new hormones/brain structures/etc. are made). • What about the role of context? • Biological theories do not take other factors (social, etc.). into account • Research shows that most adolescents transition smoothly from childhood to adulthood • Adolescence is characterized by storm and stress and many adolescents do experience more conflicts but nowhere on the scale that Hall proposed. • Organismic • Focus on interplay between the biological changes of adolescence and contextual forces in which development takes place • Ex. Sigmund Freud: proposed psychosexual stages • Biological developments and early social experiences • Latency stage: resolving unburied conflicts • Ann Freud: proposed that adolescence is a time of storm/stress, on a more massive scale than Hall proposed • Ex. Erik Erickson • Biological development and unique demands of society • Focus isn’t on early social experiences • Expectations of who you’re supposed to be and what you’re supposed to do change as you get older • Identity vs. identity diffusion • Task of adolescence to create and establish and authentic self of who you are that is separate from others. • Intimacy vs. isolation:develop lasting relationships with others • Ex. Jean Piaget • Biological developments and intellectual environment • Whether or not the individual had the biological capacity • Characterized by moving from the concrete ways of thinking to more abstract, hypothetical thought. • Learning • Emphasize the role of environment forces in development • Ex. The context in which behavior takes place and the content of what is learned • Biological capacity to learn is taken as a given • Ex. Behaviourism (B.F. Skinner (1953) • Emphasize the processes of reinforcement and punishment as the main influences on adolescent behaviour • Ex. Social Learning (A. Bandura (1959), McCandless (1961, 1970) • Emphasize how adolescents learn how to behave through the processes of modeling and observational learning • Was interested in whether or not children learned aggressive behavior from adults • Was able to show that children acted aggressively through
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