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Lecture 6

Lecture 6.docx

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Christine Burton

Lecture 6-PSY312 June 4, 2012 Language Development Victor-never had learned language up until he died at 30 -Acquisition of language as opposed to learning language -Language acquisition so automatic that there must be a part of the brain specialized to acquire it-Nomchomsky  Language comprehension involves the processing of the following four features: (in order of development, sophistication) 1) Phonological (sound) 2) Semantic (meaning) 3) Syntactic (grammar) 4) Pragmatic (context/communication) -6 months infants are repeating sounds they hear (babbling) -Involve both consonants and vowels Semantics -Smallest unit of speech that has meaning -This includes prefixes and suffixes -Example: dog- has one meaning -In North America-to rent in UK-to let -In North America-cookie in UK-biscuit  Dis (not), un, ness, ful (having the quality of)  Bank-has more than one meaning  Spinster  Accuse  Fuzzy set-ex: in Wal-Mart where do you find a picture frame? Photo place-but not a photo, it’s made from wood and you use it in your home  Translation-different dialects ex: In North America-to rent in UK-to let, in North America-cookie in UK-biscuit  Metaphors-say one thing but mean something else ex: I’ve cut you deeply Syntax -Grammar -Rules for putting those meaningful rules or ideas together -Noun, verb -By 2 or 3 but not good grammar -Problem is rules are frequently broken-hard for someone who is trying to learn a language  Surface structure-easy to understand, follow a noun, verb, adjective format  Underlying structure  Henry is easy to please-object of to please is Henry  Henry is eager to please-object of to please is somebody else  The chicken is ready to eat-has two meanings-chicken is object ready to eat its meal, chicken ready to be eaten as food  Brave young Snoopy withstood the cat’s sharp blows-5 propositional units in this sentence 1) Snoopy is brave 2) Snoopy is young 3) The blows were sharp 4) The blows came from the cat 5) Snoopy withstood the blows Pragmatics -Context -Can alter the context by giving an emotional valence to it that indicates sarcasm -Oh that’s great-rolls eyes (sarcastic) -Most sophisticated understanding of language -Develop this middle childhood early adolescence  My what a beautiful day  The troops marched into battle for two hours-context is being said by babysitter, could be reading a story, rambunctious children she been looking at for the past 2 years Language and The Brain (part 2) Neurolinguistics: a special branch of linguistics which studies the physical structure of the brain as it relates to language
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