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Hywel Morgan

PSY312-lec3 May 13, 2013 ASSIGNMENT#2 QUESTION: Compare and contrast the Piagetian theory and the Information Processing theory of cognitive development. - You can use the lecture, book (picking any of the theoretic positions), and any outside resources. (no reading associated with it – use lectures, textbook & additional resources) -assignment #1 will be available @ TA office hour – noon to 1pm @ CCT rm.4020; if can’t pick up then – will transfer to PUMP room Piaget’s Theory: Schemes st Piaget – founder of this discipline of psychology (is Swiss); 1 guy that proposed how children learn to think - proposed qualitative changes that occur in stages (4 stages) -1 stage = sensorimotor stage – which developed very rapidly over the infancy st period (1 18months to 2 years of life) = rapid development of brain (brain doubles in size over infancy) [email protected] birth = disproportionately large head compared to torso (@ birth, head is 50% of body; as adults it’s 5-10%) -also: pre-operational (“toddlerhood”), concrete operational (starting school; “childhood” – beginning to see the world for what it is; although not fully logical – ex. look over cliff and see horizontal line and ocean and logically say that it’s the end of the world because can’t see anymore), formal operational (using abstract reasoning = experimentation) st - 1 proposal = we think in schemes (schemes are scripts) ex. Hollywood movie script = boy meets girl, they fall in love, something happens to separate them, and then they get back together Ex. scheme of birthday party = get invitation to party, get a gift, come to party, eat cake, go home -Psychological structures - organized ways of making sense of experience *most basic scheme = eating, drinking, sleeping = is in sensorimotor stage: learning schemes about senses and movements - most basic thing u see in movement in infancy: movement causes things to happen (cause and effect); infant learns sensory experiences, reaction, and response = repeat again (repetitive movements) = learn this within the first month (1 stage of cognitive development) - behaviors they want to repeat – are the ones that bring pleasure and reward - they change with age - action-based sensorimotor patterns - later move to “thinking before acting” pattern – creative and deliberate Building schemes -Adaptation = building schemes thru direct interaction with environment - occurring right from birth -assimilation = using current schemes to interpret external world - the developing organism interpreting external world through their current knowledge base (not changing them, just using current schemes) Ex. furry animal + 4 legs + tail = dog Once they see a cat – they call it a dog due to their current schema (operant generalization) -accommodation = adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment Ex. being told: this is not a dog, it’s a cat = creates a new schema = cat usually smaller, cat purrs, and dog growls (for things that are very similar but are different, difficult to define the difference = “fuzzy set”) Using Assimilation + Accomodation - Equilibrium and disequilibrium = use assimilation during equilibrium = disequilibrium prompts accomodation (assimilation is wrong; requires accomodation to come back to equilibrium) - Organization = internal rearranging and linking schemes *** Ex. ur invited to Halloween party: buy a costume, and show up to party; if show up to party and no one else has a costume = disequilibrium - There’s perhaps more thinking in infancy than adulthood = b/c they keep needing to adjust schemas (constantly) Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 yrs) - Building schemes thru sensory + motor exploration - Circular reactions (b/c are typically repetitive) – they are not reflexive, are consciously thought out *Freud said most pleasurable sensorimotor action = sucking (pleasure=food, breast milk) Sensorimotor sub-stages Reflexive schemes (0-1 month) o Newborn reflexes (initially based on reflexes but u keep doing it because of pleasure, is learned) o Process of habituation seems to be hardwired Primary circular
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