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Lecture 8


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Hywel Morgan

PSY312 –lec8 June 5, 2013 SOCIAL & MORAL DEVELOPMENT *in toddlerhood – seeing significant development of social interaction; also beginning to see development of morals *1 socially cognitive development that has to occur – need to recognize themselves – develop understanding of self (“egocentrism”). Next: develop understanding that there are others, with other perspectives. Next: understanding others have thoughts & feelings of their own…& social interactions with others Birth – 2 months Cognitive: - Infants habituate to the familiar, attending less and less to repeated stimuli and increasing their attention when the stimulus changes o They pay most attention to faces, particularly to talking moving faces. - Infant can differentiate among patterns, colors, and consonants - Recognize facial expression o Seem to be hard-wired – come at birth * putting all this together – infants seem to be hardwired for social interaction Emotional: - Dependent on the environment to meet his or her need o Infants who don’t interact emotionally with primary caregiver – do not thrive. They need to form an emotional bond with primary caregiver o Harlow experiment:  2 groups of newborn monkeys: 1 interacts normally socially with mother caregiver. Other group given artificial mother (robot monkey) – gives warmth, comfort food, but no emotional interaction  Monkeys that didn’t have the emotional interaction did not thrive – tend to become introverted, become aggressive 2-6 months - Voluntary social smile o Begin to see expression of emotion – will respond by smiling - Increasing eye contact (eye-to-eye contact) o When don’t see development of this by 6 months = KEY warning sign of autism spectrum disorder, also schizophrenia, maybe blindness, reactive attachment disorder (have not developed attachment to somebody) o Emotional bonding has a critical period! Cognitive: - Qualitative change - 4 months of age infants are described as hatching socially o Typically – it’s with the primary caregiver (doesn’t have to be biological father/mother) - Explore their own bodies o Primary circular movements - Sense of self – first stage of personality development o Infants come hardwired with their own personality (temperament) o Difficult babies – are colic - always cry, always throw up, don’t sleep well, irritable; it is not caused by digestion problems. Study this week – says this is caused by migraines (not easy to measure or treat) Emotional and communication: - Distinct facial expressions o A bit later – copying of emotional expressions, even though emotions are hard-wired. - Initiating games, increases social development 6-12 months - Shows advances in cognitive understanding and communicative competence - Develop will and intentions o See that they want, that they have will o Rouge test (on nose) – look at themselves in mirror = they understand that they are a reflection in their mirror = by 12 months see the self concept developed (@ 3months they would point a the mirror reflection rather than themselves) Communication: - 7 mos adept of non-verbal communication o Gestures can get what they want - 9mos aware of the emotions (their emotions) - 8 and 10 mos – babbling takes in - By 1 year period – seeing social interaction o beginning of awareness that there are other people, and that you’re dependent on people – any people can give me things o *** by 2 = specific people can give me things - First true word Cognitive: - Exploration of the environment increases and mobility o ***Visual cliff experiment – by 12 months see sense of self and that self could be hurt  If at other end of cliff – human face smiling & encouraging – they will cross it; but if there’s a scared face at the end, the infants will not cross it - Playthings o Interacting more with things – manipulation of objects - Imitation of parents and older children o Important aspect in development of socialization o By late infancy/early toddlerhood – increase interest in interaction with other people; when they experience something new – they want to show it to other people - Symbolic play Emotional: - Predominant mood changes - Tantrum o Introduction of them. Linguistic: - Infants speak their first words - Respond appropriately to several simple statement o Simplest statement = usually 2 words (subject + verb) - Points to major body parts and uses 4-6 words spontaneously and correctly 12-24 months Emotional: - Separation anxiety o They will only respond to specific people, particularly the primary caregiver - Self-conscious awareness o Still egocentric (as Piaget described), understand themselves in self- conscious way (metacognition) Linguistic: - Most dramatic development o Perhaps the most significant development in toddlerhood = language o It does begin with an internal dialogue – egocentric speech - Child’s vocabulary balloons, the beginning of grammar - Understand 2-step commands (2 words) Moral Development - Theory of Mind focuses on other’s intentions o Piaget – initially: “I am hurt”. Next beginning to develop: “they are hurt”. Even more sophisticated idea: “I hurt you” - Develops with experience o Clearly requires environment * a moral = bad/good = sense of right and wrong * antisocial personality disorde
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