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Lecture 7


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Hywel Morgan

PSY312-Lec7 June 3, 2013 MEMORY DEVELOPMENT *process of memory seems to be modular, occurs in components – so will look back into information processing theory Demonstration – Rey neuropsychological test - Visuospatial processing test (Rey Test) – looking in processing of right hemisphere - Most obvious test of processing left hemisphere – list of words to memorize st - 1 part of test = copy the figure, beneath the figure in up-down rotation - After 20 seconds – give new colored pencil (want to see what u copy next) – want to see wat u start drawing - No aids (such as rulers) - No erasers to correct mistakes - No time limit on test - Then score – ex. 5 squiggly lines = 1 point. Want to make sure ur visuospatially processing info in front of u - This type of into = something u encode – rehearsing part of Working Memory process (repeat, copy = rehearse) * then ask to put it away, take paper out and copy from memory - most people when copying the figure – make the outline of the rectangle first * most effective of encoding is in jists/schemas – so most effective way of copying the figure – making big outlines and then working on the little pieces - hopefully the info that was encoded is stored – although there is some decay * before age 5/6 – decay is slower, storage is smaller - children learn by building up the little details Memory Processes: - They are not very effective before the age of 5 - Memory is very important in process of learning 1. Encoding 2. Storage 3. Retrieval Stages of Memory: - 3 memory stores that differ in function, capacity, and duration 1. Sensory memory o From incoming sensory input o Not well developed until 6 months of life o This is not in consciousness – detect everything for a little less than half a second (400 ms) & filtering majority of it out o Attention is required for filtering most info out – not very good until about 4 years old; it pulls information into working memory o Recognition (retrieval)– for filtering out (I recognize that 1 and want to retrieve it) – wat u want to pull out of sensory memory. Can see it by cocktail party syndrome o Duration = less than half a second (same as in adulthood) o Capacity = unlimited 2. Working or Short-term Memory o Duration of working memory = longer = 15-30 seconds; is significantly reduced in infancy (perhaps 1/3 of duration in adulthood, but develops quite quickly) o Capacity in working memory = 3-7 chunking units, average number of digits u can recall backwards =3 or 4; is much smaller in infancy  The numbers forwards u are required to remember in society = phone number – which is 7 digits + 1 chunk (area code) o Maintenance rehearsal 3. Long-Term Memory o Process of recognizing + attending to develops; where schemas develop o SM & WM = are function of development of neurological development o U cant change and develop without physiological maturation Automatic vs. Effortful Processing: - Automatic: o Unconscious encoding of information * one of most automatically acquired skills / processes = language (it resides in Long Term memory – it requires encoding & retrieval, but is effortless – is automatic) o Examples:  What did you eat for lunch today?  Was the last time u studied during the day or night?  U know the meanings of these very words you are reading. Are u actively trying to process the definition of the words? - Effortful: o Requires attention and conscious effort *maintenance rehearsal in working memory is required (the effort); components of rehearsal – repetition (verbal – phonological loop; visuospatial sketch-pad) & central executive – the manager, put this there & here, etc. *another component of WM = elaboration – not only rehearsing something, but also making it meaningful; this is not well-developed in childhood – b/c requires a schema & schemas are not well-developed - person that proposed elaboration theory = Craik (@ UofT); suggested that memories are not put into long term memory unless they are given meaning, unless they’re elaborated o Examples: Types of Long-Term Memory: - Explicit o Memory with awareness o Information can be consciously recollected (recalled or declared) o Also called “Declarative Memory” * IS FURTHER DIVIDED INTO: (done by Tulving, @ UofT) - Episodic information = events u have experienced, information about events or “episodes” (unique to u – ex. what u had at breakfast this morning) ***MEMORIES can be altered! – they are malleable – probably due to change in schema - are explicit memoriex b/c u can actively declare ur answers to these questions - Semantic information = general knowledge, facts, school work (seem to be automatically derived –u don’t remember how u derived info) - are explicit memories b/c actively declare ur answers - Implicit o Memory without awareness o Memory that affects behavior but cannot consciously be recalled o Also called “nondeclarative memory” o Examples: LANGUAGE , knowing how to ride a bike * Acquiring implicit memories = easier in childhood than adulthood * IS DIVIDED TO: - procedural information = motor skills, actions (learning to , learning to drive, swim, ride a bike) - implicit b/c * can be shown with tracing experiment using a mirror * even u h
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