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Lecture 9


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Hywel Morgan

Psy312-lec9 June 10, 2013 Thinking and Problem Solving (Ch.10) Final exam: - Similar to midterm! - MC, SA -> 2 hours (not 3) - Focus more on 2 half of term Thinking -thinking, reasoning, comprehension = all part of problem-solving process 4 basic ways in which you can think (in increasing levels of sophistication) 1. Belief -least sophisticated (not BAD! – doesn’t require many rules) -acquired early in development -Seem to be impervious to contrary evidence (thoughts we’re not going to change) - research shows they do make us healthy **religion = most obvious form of belief o Ppl who have strong beliefs tend to be more healthy (physically) - beliefs are acquired from other ppl and influenced by others 2. By Authority - thinking that’s acquired by authority - includes rules **education = most obvious example of this thinking - children begin to use this thinking after age 5 3. A priori = before the fact - thoughts that use reason – are reasonable, logical BUT before the fact Ex. “Earth is flat” – reasonable b/c seems that way (see horizon – sky & ground = so there’s edge between the two). To get to the fact, u test – Columbus sailed off on ship towards horizon (go out and test the logic) 4. Scientific = deductive reasoning – ex. 2+2=4 - testing hypothesis – finding the fact - most of us don’t use it all the time – is easier but requires more rules - does not develop until adolescence * inductive reasoning = this is what it’s probably like (ex. formation of schemas) *** the 4 ways of thinking develop chronologically over time – but doesn’t mean we don’t use them all – because as adults we do use all 4 ways of thinking. *both inductive and deductive reasoning can be manipulated - media + advertising = manipulate our inductive reasoning to make us behave in specific ways - u see ~200-500 advertisements everyday - ad’s often use a deception/are misleading (capitalizing on ur inductive reasoning) * metaphors are used heavily – NOT deception (fraud) – but are misleading! Methods advertising firms use: 1. Hedging = words that seriously weaken force of the claim, but the hedge is not remembered (not part of the schema) Ex. “Crest fights cavities” (fights – is hedge – b/c can win/lose). We hear: Crest prevents cavities (but this is not used in advertisement) Ex. Palmolive leaves dishes virtually spotless (virtually = hedge – b/c can be taken either way but we pick the side that means it leaves dishes completely spotless) Ex. Head & Shoulders helps control dandruff with regular use. 2. Elliptical Comparative = no basis for comparison (perhaps most common inductive reasoning used by advertisements) Ex. give me more please (more of what??) – in childhood we learn that “more” means “better” Ex. less fat & less calories! - but no comparative!!! – less fat than what? And less calories than what? - this is not fraud, but this is misleading! Ex. goes further on a tank of gas! - is it more economical? Or does it just have a larger tank?? 3. Implied Causation = 2 imperatives stated successively (1 after another) - from childhood – think that if 2 imperatives stated 1 after another, then they go st together (they are causal – 1 one causes other one) Ex. Get a great tan this summer. Use Coppertone. - if u use coppertone – u’ll get a great tan – BUT they’re separate statements! 4. Pseudoscientific Claims Pseudo = fake; scientific = science = reporting results of a survey only by absolute number or just by percent (but u need both to determine accuracy of the claim) Ex. 7/10 dentists recommend Dentyne gum (but who’s the sample!!!???) 5. Implied Negative = implication that’s not true - not fraudulent – but very close! Ex. we will accompany u to an audit if Revenue Canada questions ur return. = we will hold ur hand – u don’t have to go through it by yourself, @ no extra charge! - is implied negative – b/c by law they HAVE to accompany you! Ex. Coca Cola has no cancer-causing artificial sweeteners! - is implied negative b/c statement means other companies would have cancer-causing artificial sweeteners! – but this is by law mandatory that companies not include these in drinks! Problem Solving 3 primary facets of cognition: - Cognition processes information - Cognition is active o Consciousness, working memory - Cognition is useful and purposeful o Implying cognition has goals: goes from “I have an itchy nose & need to scratch it” or “I want to go to grad school”
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