Psy312-lec9 June 10, 2013
Thinking and Problem Solving (Ch.10)
- Similar to midterm!
- MC, SA -> 2 hours (not 3)
- Focus more on 2 half of term
-thinking, reasoning, comprehension = all part of problem-solving process
4 basic ways in which you can think (in increasing levels of sophistication)
-least sophisticated (not BAD! – doesn’t require many rules)
-acquired early in development
-Seem to be impervious to contrary evidence (thoughts we’re not going to
- research shows they do make us healthy
**religion = most obvious form of belief
o Ppl who have strong beliefs tend to be more healthy (physically)
- beliefs are acquired from other ppl and influenced by others
2. By Authority
- thinking that’s acquired by authority
- includes rules
**education = most obvious example of this thinking
- children begin to use this thinking after age 5
3. A priori
= before the fact
- thoughts that use reason – are reasonable, logical BUT before the fact
Ex. “Earth is flat” – reasonable b/c seems that way (see horizon – sky & ground =
so there’s edge between the two). To get to the fact, u test – Columbus sailed off
on ship towards horizon (go out and test the logic)
= deductive reasoning – ex. 2+2=4
- testing hypothesis – finding the fact
- most of us don’t use it all the time – is easier but requires more rules
- does not develop until adolescence
* inductive reasoning = this is what it’s probably like (ex. formation of schemas)
*** the 4 ways of thinking develop chronologically over time – but doesn’t mean we don’t
use them all – because as adults we do use all 4 ways of thinking. *both inductive and deductive reasoning can be manipulated
- media + advertising = manipulate our inductive reasoning to make us behave in
- u see ~200-500 advertisements everyday
- ad’s often use a deception/are misleading (capitalizing on ur inductive
* metaphors are used heavily – NOT deception (fraud) – but are misleading!
Methods advertising firms use:
= words that seriously weaken force of the claim, but the hedge is not
remembered (not part of the schema)
Ex. “Crest fights cavities” (fights – is hedge – b/c can win/lose).
We hear: Crest prevents cavities (but this is not used in advertisement)
Ex. Palmolive leaves dishes virtually spotless (virtually = hedge – b/c can be
taken either way but we pick the side that means it leaves dishes completely
Ex. Head & Shoulders helps control dandruff with regular use.
2. Elliptical Comparative
= no basis for comparison
(perhaps most common inductive reasoning used by advertisements)
Ex. give me more please
(more of what??) – in childhood we learn that “more” means “better”
Ex. less fat & less calories!
- but no comparative!!! – less fat than what? And less calories than what?
- this is not fraud, but this is misleading!
Ex. goes further on a tank of gas!
- is it more economical? Or does it just have a larger tank??
3. Implied Causation
= 2 imperatives stated successively (1 after another)
- from childhood – think that if 2 imperatives stated 1 after another, then they go
together (they are causal – 1 one causes other one)
Ex. Get a great tan this summer. Use Coppertone.
- if u use coppertone – u’ll get a great tan – BUT they’re separate
4. Pseudoscientific Claims
Pseudo = fake; scientific = science
= reporting results of a survey only by absolute number or just by percent (but u
need both to determine accuracy of the claim)
Ex. 7/10 dentists recommend Dentyne gum (but who’s the sample!!!???)
5. Implied Negative = implication that’s not true
- not fraudulent – but very close!
Ex. we will accompany u to an audit if Revenue Canada questions ur return.
= we will hold ur hand – u don’t have to go through it by yourself, @ no
- is implied negative – b/c by law they HAVE to accompany you!
Ex. Coca Cola has no cancer-causing artificial sweeteners!
- is implied negative b/c statement means other companies would have
cancer-causing artificial sweeteners! – but this is by law mandatory that
companies not include these in drinks!
3 primary facets of cognition:
- Cognition processes information
- Cognition is active
o Consciousness, working memory
- Cognition is useful and purposeful
o Implying cognition has goals: goes from “I have an itchy nose & need to
scratch it” or “I want to go to grad school”