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Lecture 10


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University of Toronto Mississauga
Hywel Morgan

PSY312-lec10 June 12, 2013 ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT *cog development continues after childhood (our book doesn’t talk about these things) *roughly ages between 12-19 There are profound developmental changes that occur (in general): 1. biological - puberty: significant change in hormone levels - in girls: around 10-11(unclear why getting younger – some say change in genetics, some say better nutrition, better regimen of health care) - in boys: around 13 * development of 2ndary sex characteristics (physical) *change in hormones could relate to change in thinking * development of sexuality with onset of puberty (these are thoughts) - change in nutritional needs – body growing really rapidly during puberty (call it growth spurt) - increase need in vitamin B and D – for skeletal growth - change in eating habits – boys eat more, girls eat less 2. social - increase in autonomous feeling – increased feeling of “me” “my and you” (increase in “I’m important”) - profound de-idolization of parents (when 8 – u idolize parents!; when 15 – ur parents are clearly wrong – don’t know how I feel, they are idiots!) - loyalties develop – friendships important - intimacy becomes highly valued (intimate relationships develop) - personal preferences develop - desire for social acceptance becomes important 3. cognitive - biological + social changes influence cognitive changes - ability to reason, think, make decisions – becomes noticeably more sophisticated - problem solving techniques come – deductive reasoning evolving; not solely based on intuition (based on schemas) - clash of ideas with parents - parents: this is the way things should work, but that’s probably not going to happen - adolescents: this is the way things should always work! - adolescents begin to see parents as not always right Conceptions of Adolescence BIO perspective: - Puberty - Storm and stress - Freud – genital stage SOC perspective: - Social and cultural influences BALANCED POV: - Both biological and social influences ***change from socializing with family to socializing with your peers - Wat ur peers think about you becomes really important in adolescence - In high school – have preferred group of friends: “cliques” – similar thoughts + beliefs, similar interests o Types: jocks, nerds, preps, band-geeks, emo’s, Parent-child relationships during adolescence: - Rise in conflict: o Adaptive behaviour o Psychological distancing o Different views of teen readiness for responsibility - Most conflict is mild o Also affection, support – hopefully resolves conflict (normal reaction to teen’s conflict) o In adulthood – conflict is resolved! o Cognitive clash of thoughts in adolescence – realize parents aren’t perfect & they don’t think the way u do Piaget’s Theory: formal operational stage - Hypothetico-deductive reasoning o Deducing hypotheses from a general theory  Scientific thinking  Deductive reasoning  experimentation o Pendulum problem - Propositional thought o Form it takes: “if…then…” o Evaluating the logic of verbal propositions *pendulum problem: - way Piaget looked at development of formal operational thinking - children given strings of different lengths, and weights of different weight @ end of string. Instructed to pull weight back at different angles. Asked to estimate how fast weight at end of pendulum would swing – based on length of swing & weight & how far angle they pulled pendulum - typically solve by trial & error – might not lead to right solution - adolescents get really good at solving this problem; children not good at solving this, even by trial & error – b/c requires some insight + abstract reasoning * the most important factor – length of string – b/c of centriphical force Follow-up research on formal operational thought: - School-age children start developing abstract thinking skills o Problems with propositional thinking  Logical necessity (they can think logically) - Formal operations may not be universal o Training, context contribute o Often fall back on easier thinking o Schooling essential factor ***the more education u have the more likely u are to rely on formal operational thinking (deductive reasoning) Information- processing improvements in adolescence - Attention (btw 10-13 should see significant improvements in attention) - Inhibition (prefrontal cortex involved!) o Significant development in prefrontal cortex – seems to be hormonally based – occurs in adolescence - Memory strategies o Psychological name
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