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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 PSY312

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Stuart Kamenetsky

January 13, 2014 Lecture 2 -Piaget interested in Cognitive development. God father in this field -Swiss psychologist -Vgotsky is also important in this field. He was a Russian psychologist Piaget's theory: Schemes Psychological Structures -organized ways of making sense of experience -some people refer to them as scripts -we all have schemas, the basic cognitive structures -help us make sense of our world, we rely on them -helps us to adapt to the world/ environment (efficient) but can make things go wrong because some environments don't conform to a certain schema -basic script -ex: in a Hollywood romantic comedy: boy meets girl, boy loses girl, and then boy gets girl back -schemas start in infancy; sucking Change with Age -action-based sensorimotor patterns -later move to "thinking before acting" pattern-- creative and deliberate -get more elaborate a time goes on, start very basic (sucking) -learning cognitive schemas, become more elaborate -at birth you become an infant, that lasts until 2, then you become a toddler, at 5 a child to 10, 10 to 13 middle childhood, 13-19 adolescence. -how we learn to interact with our environment from infancy to adolescence -continue to adapt past adolescence -two important things that Piaget's proposed, to adapt to environment is building schemas (framework). The second important thing that he proposed proceeded in stages (progressed from one stage to the next)- cognitively in stages -if you can't get past stage one you can't get to stage three -you build schemas to move to different stages -other psychologists don't believe that -first person to propose stages was Freud Building Schemes Adaptation -building schemes through direct interaction with the environment Assimilation -using current schemes to interpret external world January 13, 2014 Accommodation -adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment -I'm stupid, I'm worthless- dysfunctional schemes -occurs throughout childhood -once they are established it is very difficult to change -established by middle childhood...10-12 -as they are becoming established they are malleable but difficult to change -you can build on a old schemas but not create a new one -empirical evidence to show that, if a child doesn't build a schemas during a critical period, its done -if schema for language isn't built by 12, its done UsingAssimilation andAccommodation Equilibrium and Disequilibrium -use assumption curing equilibrium -disequilibrium prompts accommodation Organization -internal rearranging and linking schemes -propositional networking, semantic networks -Prof says dog...what word do you think of? Cat, bark, animal, bone Sensorimotor Stage -birth to 2 years -building schemes through sensory and motor exploration -circular reactions (patterns). Come back to doing the same thing to get the same outcome. -Cry...cry works, do it again. (later on in childhood it's called conditioning) -what the first toy you present to an infant? Mobile -sucking is the first schema -There's sub stages to sensorimotor Reflexive schemes Birth–1 month Newborn reflexes Primary circular reactions 1–4 months Simple motor habits centered around own body Secondary circular reactions4–8 months Repeat interesting effects in surroundings January 13, 2014 Coordination of secondary 8–12 months Intentional, goal-directed behavior; object permanence circular reactions Tertiary circular reactions 12–18 months Explore properties of objects through novel actions Mental representation 18 months–2 years Internal depictions of objects or events; deferred imitation Mental Representation -deferred imitation- begin to imitate behaviours that they have seen people do before -internal depictions of objects or events...household chores Object Permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight -Piaget: develops in Sub-stage 4 Not yet complete -A-not-B search error (at 1 year) Mental Representations Internal, mental depictions of objects, people, events, information -can manipulate with mind -permits deferred imitation and play January 13, 2014 Violation of Expectation Method -in the video, the train on the track, screen blocks the person removing the block from the track -What is the reason for this test? -to see if infants younger than one are familiar with the concept of object permanence, and the answer is yes Deferred Imitation Piaget: Develops about 18 months Newer research: -6 weeks- facial imitation (hard wired, built in) -6-9 months- copy actions with objects -12-14 months- imitate rationally -18 months- imitate intended, but not completed, actions Evaluation of Sensorimotor Stage  Object search
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