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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Information Processing PSY312

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Stuart Kamenetsky

January 20, 2014 Lecture 3: Information Processing Rey Figure (Visuo-Spatial Processing) -copy a figure that is unfamiliar and complex -gives information about the way that you process information - can't describe verbally -how you draw the figure -things on the side: peripheral information -rectangle is the easiest to copy first -big picture then fill in the details -not as efficient to process the peripheral first -is the image that you drew smaller or larger than the original -men are better at this task -measuring your perception and your memory -each line gets a point Atkinson, Chiffron were the first to propose this model -most consistent view -most widely accepted view on how we process information -modular theory, really useful for the development of artificial development -computers are designed this way -bottom up processing -first part- incoming information: sensory information we have to sense information coming in. 5 senses, registering all 5 of these senses at the same time, Sight is the most important, sensitive detectors (cones and rod, detect electromagnetic radiation; 2nd most important is hearing(auditory, vibrations of molecules in the air, then turn it into meaning) detecting different wave lengths of sounds (amplitude, pitch) touch(somatosensory); pressure (when pointed out), FILTER it, heat, pain, vibration --receptors in the skin help determine what vibration -filtering a lot of stuff out, that you do not want to attend to -not filtering out, Gustatory (sense of taste): helps us adapt to our environment, receptors in our mouth, that detect things, that give us a sense of taste (sweet, salt, fat) -sour, bitter, could imply poisonous for us Smell: detecting chemicals in the air, receptors in the nose -the ability to detect these does not disappear, they are all being detected at the same time -registered at the same time - research showing, everyone has perfect photographic memory for all the information coming in (the ground touching your feet, the sound of the podium, the smell of the person beside you) January 20, 2014 -iconic memory -a lot of it is being filtered out, its lost (decay) -what do you want to filter in? -things that are meaningful -recognize -Experiment: 1960 by Sterling, set of 16 letters by row, first row of letters CDZA, second row BQFZ, third row MPLG, flashed them for 50 milliseconds -able to recall 3-4 of the letters, -processing all 12 of them in the sensory register -tones with the letters, half a second before the presentation of the letters -person could remember the row of letters, depending of the tone -could pick out the row based on the tone -sensory registers (not conscious) occurs within half a second, perfect photographic memory for half a second, stuff you don't want is filtered out -stuff you do want, is pattern recognition( ) (language etc) -people that cant filter out have disorder:ADHD -next module, working memory, controls consciousness -attention ( ), conscious memory -short term memory is a component of working memory -working memory: repeat the numbers (digit span task) 512, 6818, 12563, 938165 -research shows that there is a capacity limit, 5-7 items (chunks) *length of phone number* -working memory, saying numbers and then trying to say it backwards -after having worked on it, brain says, meh, not so important, decay! 15-30 seconds for working memory -when you rehearse you can keep it for longer in working memory -famous researcher-Craik suggested there's another way to keep it in working memory, elaboration (create a meaning for it) -this information will go into long term memory -relatively permanent change in behaviour -encoding the information from working memory to LTM (bottom up processing) -long term memory not in consciousness -retrieve (top down processing ) -some information in long term memory isn't retrievable anymore, it's not called decay, forgetting! -if its misplaced it's not easily retrieved, retrieved given the right circumstances -top down and bottom up are happening at the same time -language is in the long term memory -detecting incoming information, filter out what you don't want, filter what you do want and process it from the long term memory January 20, 2014 -attending to things that you are not attending to, recognizing pattern that you are not aware of -very salient example, cocktail party example: everyone is speaking, once someone says your name, you attend to it, -central executive, frontal cortex -long term memory, cortex -working memory, hippocampus -sensory register, midbrain and cortex Information Processing Improvements Attention: -efficiency, ability to shift focus improves -less attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after first year Memory: -retention intervals lengthen -recall appears by first year; excellent in second year Categorization: -impressive perceptual categorization in first
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