PSY312: Lecture 3
Cognitive development- information processing point of view
REY figure (Visio-spatial information processing)
- Not efficient to draw the peripheral information first (the side details)
- How you draw the picture, in terms of the size...bigger or smaller compared to the
- Men are better at the task.
- How does the model look like? (By Atkinson-shiffren model)
- Model expresses how we widely express cognitive information
- Model for artificial intelligence
- Bottom-up processing
- Incoming information: we have to sense information (sensory info). Five incoming piece
of sensory info….Registered at the same time.
• Most impt: sight (stimuli: electromagnetic radiation) (detectors: cones & rods)
• Second impt: auditory info ( stimuli: vibration of molecules in the air) (and then
you turn it into meaning=perception)
• Touch (somatosensation)- heat, pressure, pain, vibration, gustatory(sense of
taste) …they help us adapt to our environment
• Receptors in mouth: detect taste
• What types of things taste good? Sweet, salt, fat….why? fat= adaptive for
• Sour, bitter= not like—imply poisonous
• Olfactory: detect chemicals in the air
- Information processing model: you filter a lot of information out( i.e. side noises that are
not important) …..what don’t you filter out?
- Theory: comes in modules: all 5 sensory inputs are being registered at the same time
• We all have perfect photographic memory
• Iconic memory : includes everything!
• all 5 inputs are being registered but a lot of it is being filtered out …its going out
• things filtered out= decay
- what do you want to filter IN?
• things that are meaningful
• things that you recognize
• study by Sperling 1960
• gave a set of 12 letters by row
• 1 row CDZA
• Flashed the letters for 15 millisecond
• The subject was actually processing all 12 letters in sensory processing.
• First row –hightone, 2 -medium, third-lowtone
• Each row got assigned a tone
• The person could remember the letter depending on the tone
• Pick out row depending on the tone • Decay- occurs within half a sec
• Perfect photographic memory for half a sec
• Stuff you recognize is filtered in, rest is filtered out!
• Pattern recognition: “what is the pattern you are recognising right now”?
• People who are unable to filter information= attention deficit disorder
• The stuff we want to recognize goes to the next module…..known as WORKING
• The top down component between working memory and sensory register is
• Working memory controls consciousness
• i.e. verbal memory: digit span task --512, 6818, 12563, 938165…bringing this
number into working memory and filtering other info out.
• Say the digits backwards….still STM, but you have to work on them now…
• Info is brought to consciousness and it is worked on. We brought it to attention
because its impt.
• After worked on it, the brain says it’s not important…..the information then
• Sensory register decay (0.5 s)……decay after working memory (15-30 seconds)
• Info stays in working memory beyond 15-30 seconds if you keep rehearsing it
….keep repeating it!
• G. Craik suggested another way to keep info in working memory: elaborate on
it….add a meaning to it!
• Info that is rehearsed or elaborated on then goes to LTM
• LTM is a relative permanent store!
• Working memory to long term memory= encoding ….bottom up processing
• LTM to working memory (top down processing)= retrieve
• LTM = not in consciousness
• LTM decay--- info that cannot be retrieved…don’t call it decay…we call it
“FORGET”—acknowledgement that it might not be decayed but rather misplaced
somewhere. When info is in LTM it is there forever. It is retrievable given the
• Language= LTM
• Top down, and bottom up occurring at the same time.
• Detect incoming sensory info, compare it to info in LTM
Sensory register Working memory LTM
Decay 0.5 s Decay 15-30 sec FORGET - You are attending to patterns you are not aware of
- i.e. cocktail party syndrome: hear your name in some conversation at the party, you pay
attention to your name
- attention does in both direction (from sensory register to working memory)
- central executive resides in frontal cortex—contemporary theory
- LTM resides in cortex
- Working memory- hippocampus
- Sensory register: midbrain and cortex
Information processing in INFANCY
- Attention: efficiency, ability to shift focus improves. Less attraction to novelty, better
sustained attention after first year
- Memory: retention intervals lengthen. Recall appears by first year, excellent in second
- Categorization: impressive perceptual categorization in first year. Conceptual
categorization in second year
- Significant development of working memory in infancy
- Infantile amnesia- not good developmental LTM
- Sensory memory deve