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PSY312 may 7 (lecture #1)

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Hywel Morgan

May 7, 2012 REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT -if you learn a second language before the age of 11 or 12 both languages will not have an accent -all the neurons you are ever going to use are developed in the second trimester of pregnancy -4 general principles of development: 1) direction -states that development proceeds from head to tail -brain changing the most quickly -development proceeding from axis (middle of body) to periphery (arms/legs) -when infants respond to painful stimuli – reflexively withdraw whole body -as they get older the withdrawal becomes more defined 2) progression -can proceed in 2 different ways: from general to specific (ex: pain) -can also proceed in asynchronist way (ex: puberty) 3) personal and social -development from undifferentiated (if you dress a boy in pink pajamas you can’t tell difference if it’s a boy or girl) and dependent (ex: how infancy starts out) 4) maturation and readiness -qualitative physiological alteration in size/growth must occur and brain change must occur in order for a child to take on cognitive tasks (such as learning to talk/walk) and trying to teach child tasks before maturation has occurred is useless REVIEW OF NEUROANATOMY Cross-section of the brain -forebrain – cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus -midbrain -hindbrain – cerebellum, pons, medulla -peripheral nervous system senses incoming sensory information (input system): auditory, visual, othactory, gustatory system (taste), tactile, sense of balance controlled by vestibular system (could be a 6 sense) -also an output system: motoric (movement) – gathering sensory information and creating movement/behaviour -psychology – the study of behaviour -memory is a behaviour – can be measured by tasks such as list 10 words and try and name them all back -anything you do is a behaviour generated by peripheral nervous system generated by CNS -voluntary conscious behaviours are controlled mostly by the brain -lower parts of the brain are older (evolutionary) compared to more recently developed surface of the brain (bark – top, outside layer of the brain = cerebrum) -conscious cognitive thought processes occurring in cerebral cortex -4 areas of cerebral cortex: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital -underneath the cerebral cortex is called sub cortical -directly underneath cerebral cortex are thalamus (sensory relay – most of
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