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PSY312 May 9 (lecture #2)

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Hywel Morgan

May 9, 2012 -almost all of Piaget’s theories have been challenged to some degree MOVIE – HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE FIRST 2 ½ YEARS -can detect changes, discriminate between stimuli, remember a stimulus  as a result of habituation and dishabituation -habituation – probably the simplest form of memory and learning -infants become bored/habituated to stimulus that is no longer novel -perception -analyzing information provided by 5 senses -vision is least developed sense in an infant and they rely more heavily on other 4 senses -taste – sweet, sour, salty, bitter, fatty -sweet, salty, fatty required for metabolism – infants like -sour, bitter usually indicate something that you don’t need that could be poisonous – infants dislike -infants prefer complex shapes over simple shapes and prefer faces to other shapes -6 steps to learning: random manipulation, gross exploration, minute examination, practice, experiment, use information -infants will manipulate objects motorically and orally and then will explore it further – building a schema – when they are bored with it they’ll try to manipulate it in a different way -the scientific method (experimentation) - process most likely to lead to satisfactory outcome – test a hypothesis – this skill does not develop until late adolescence -infants have no object permanence – ie: out of sight, out of mind -between 8-9 months they gain object permanence and will hunt for hidden object -as object permanence develops infant realizes if object is covered by blanket it is still there -however if bring in 2 blankets will still look under blanket A because that’s the blanket where it was originally hidden  A not B -recognition memory – develops in first 6 months and detectible in habituation behaviour and is limited -if given a brief exposure to toy…infant can only remember it for 10-15 seconds -8 month old – can remember after 15 minutes -recall/expressive memory – necessary for object permanence – recalls image of missing object -sensorimotor – age birth to age two -infant developing sensory and motor manipulations to environment -6 sub stages: -birth to 1 – basic responses: sucking, looking, head turning – innate behaviours that are eventually modified by environment  ex: will originally suck everything -1-4 months - repeats actions that initially occur accidently -4-8 months – repeat actions that create interesting sights/sounds – will be repeated as long as it produces interesting effect -will become to imitate others -8-12 months – actions more deliberate and purposeful and object permanence develops -12-18 months – will explore objects in environment and vary actions rather than repeating and observes effect – rely on trial and error technique -rudiments of symbolic behaviour – 15 months -18 months – 2 years - begins to make elementary deductions before proceeding with trial and error – beginning of symbolic thinking -symbolic thinking allows child to imitate action that they have seen before -deferred imitation – see something someone else has done and copying them at a later time -piaget says an infant must successively pass through 4 stages of cognitive development -children’s behaviour moves towards increasing adaptation -if after 5 min the infant shows no interest or has not mastered the task yet means they are not ready for that particular task -facilitating cognitive development -be sensitive and allow give-and-take, engage in reciprocal play and speech, provide variety and regularity piaget’s theory: schemes -psychological structures -organized ways of making sense of experience -change with age -action-based sensorimotor patterns -later move to “thinking before acting” pattern – creative and deliberate -scheme = how to do -infants are building schemes right from birth and will make them more complicated by adding new behaviours/approaches as they begin to get bored with the simpler ones Building schemes -adaptation -building schemes through direct interaction with environment -brings us into equilibrium with our environment – condition you are in where there is just enough (not too much, not too little but just right) – all organisms seek equilibrium -assimilation -using current schemes to interpret external world -infant originally knows suck leads to nutrition then uses mouth to explore other things that may or may not bring pleasure -accommodation -adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment -bring organism back to equilibrium Sensorimotor stage -birth to 2 years (not everyone agrees with this range) -building schemes through sensory and motor exploration -circular reactions (repetitions) -as you get older you learn through repetition and elaboration Object permanence -develops at end of sensorimotor stage  A-not-B error search MOVIE 4 stages according to piaget: -sensorimotor -preoperational – 2-7 years -concrete operational – 7-12 years -formal operational – 12+ years -assimilation and accommodation example: furry animal with 4 legs is dog  sees a cow and calls it a dog
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