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Lecture 3

PSY213 Lecture 3.docx

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Giampaolo Moraglia

PSY213 Lecture 3 - Jan 24, 2013 Sensory Aging  exp. some loss of sensitivity as we age  all senses attuned to some source of energy from the environment that is picked up from specialized recepter cells located in sensory organs (ears, eyes, nose, etc.)  sensory loss may be caused by deterioration in the nerves/fibres, organs, brain Age related Changes occur at all levels of a sensory system  sensory system deterioration may be from disease, misuse/disuse of sensory organs  field study: students made to wear special lenses (vision loss), blockers i ears, students sent to do everyday things (ex. groceries)  o students became very cautious, fumbling around, etc.  schlerotic coat = sturdy to withstand pressure from within eye (2X atmospheric pressure) and so the eye can keep its spherical shape  white of eyes are white because the eye is reflecting most of the light that enters it  pupil responds to emotional, sexual arousal, also light, etc.  retina - captures light energy that leads to nerve signals  two chambers: aqueous: filled with water; vitreus chamber: contains jelly like substance  muscles connected to lens allow for changing the curvature of lens to accomodate for different vision  lens flat for visually seeing long distances (6-7 and more metres away); image blurred when lens is flat and looking at closer objects  muscles change refractory power of eye by increasing curvature of lens therefore making it able to focus on closer objects; increasing curvature as objects get closer  near point: smallest point at which you can see an object clearly; lens has reached its maximum curvature  with age vitreus humour (transparent jelly in vitreus chamber) becomes more opaque (loses transparency), makes image harder to reach retina at back of eye  eye becomes more vulnerable to debris from metabolic processes of eyes, casts shadow over retina makes you see small shadows (usually doesn't bother ppl too much b/c gravity brings debris down to settle at bottom of the eye)  seeing shower of sparkles means retina is at risk of being detached  iris gets smaller; limits amount of light able to get through pupil (b/c pupil gets smaller)  o limits amount of light able to get in by almost 60-70% o called: senile meiosis (happens by age 60)  PUPIL RESPONDS MORE SLOWLY WITH AGE  o changes due to weakening of muscles that control the pupil o eye takes longer to adjust to changes in illumination (ex. driving at night, leaving a theatre, etc.)  lens gains layers like an onion from birth to get bigger  o older cells in inner core of lens shrivel and harden b/c lose water, lens become less transparent o around age 35, lens begins to get yellow; harder to discriminate colour o lens gets bigger, thicker, harder, and loses its ability to change its shape (harder to focus properly at short distances)  Presbyopia  o increase in near point distance (notice you have to move objects farther away just to see them); begins around age 40 (average), women experience this 3-5 years earlier than men o condition easily corrected with corrective lenses o people who already have vision problems (myopia) may need to get bifocals in their 40s  all physiological factors for vision loss added up do not account for visual acuity which means that neural parts of the visual system also plays a role  by age 80, visual acuity is at 20% of what is was at age 30  dynamic visual acuity ability to see objects that are moving (ex. reading ad on bus as its moving)  o mediated by different types of special cells o visual field shrinks as we get older (horizontal field vision decreases from 170 degrees to 140 degrees) o depth perception also declines (b/w 40 -50 yrs); b/c of loss of binocular cells VISUAL DISORDERS  develop slowly and painlessly; can become far advanced before effects are noticed (why its important to have regular eye checkups)  Glaucoma  o in healthy eye, there is a balance b/w rate at which new humour is created and old drained away o improper drainage/ too much being created builds up in eye and increases the pressure thus constraining blood vessels that provide oxyge
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