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PSY213 LEC 1 NOTES.docx

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Giampaolo Moraglia

PSY213 Thursday January 10, 2013 LECTURE 1 ADULT DEVELOPMENT & AGING: BASIC CONCEPTS -Aging = characterized by loses -therefore have to compensate/adjust to those loses -aging is inevitable, universal, and irreversible -majority of people more or less subscribe to this view peak at around a certain age then start to decline at an increasing rate ON THE MEANING OF „AGING‟  ‘Primary Aging’ (or just ‘aging’)—normal, disease-free, age-related changes which occur throughout adulthood. This is the basic meaning of the term, and the key concern of this course. Primary aging = aging is NOT a disease, catching disease can be increased as you get older but those can be avoided, unlike aging -natural occurrence  ‘Secondary Aging’—changes related to disease, lifestyle, and environmental factors that are not intrinsically part of aging per se. Secondary aging = certain diseases related to aging but are not necessarily PART of aging -exposed to decades of factors -longer we live, longer the exposure to exposure -depends on the environment one lives in (i.e. hearing ability of people in Toronto to those in Easter Island. Those in Easter Island would have better hearing)  Tertiary Aging = rapidly occurring decline that occurs shortly before death.  The „seven ages of life‟ according to Shakespeare  From: „As you like it‟ 1600 …”One man in his time plays many parts, his acts being seven ages. At first the infant, and then the whining school-boy, then a soldier, and then the justice, the sixth age shifts into the lean and slipper‟d pantaloon (often deceived merchant). Last scene of all, is the second childishness and mere oblivion, sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.” THE HUMAN LIFESPAN IS SUBDIVIDED INTO PERIODS (IN THE WEST)  Infancy  Childhood  Adolescence  Adulthood - Young Adulthood (20-40 yrs) - Middle Adulthood (40-65 yrs) - Late Adulthood (65 yrs and older) Partition of the lifespan -the textbook does this -differs from one society to another, and also within society -Shakespeare = an example of this partitioning (7 ages of life) Western Lifestyle -*textbook might use different titles* - people want to add “emerging adulthood” = no longer adolescent but not quite fully grown adult DIVISION OF THE LIFESPAN INTO DISTINCT PERIODS  Is accomplished by using so-called ‘markers’, which can be - Biological - Psychological - Sociological -markers...due to those three factors (biological, psychological, and sociological) A KEY PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF SUCH MARKERS  Is that there are NO UNIVERSALLY VALID, age-related markers that can clearly, meaningfully, and unambiguously demarcate the various periods of human life  Because of this, some critics contend that we would be better off avoiding the use of such markers altogether -biological markers are the easiest to marker -some traditional societies use puberty as a marker -the completion of physical growth (15-31) is also a frequently used marker -“maturity” = psychological maturity = meeting certain levels of development (the ability to form long term plans, etc.)  but many people in late 20s and 30s have not fully met these requires, so this seems counterintuitive -criteria of these markers are not satisfactory because of how they are met by different people  not one of these benchmarks by themselves is sufficient to say what is an “adult” and setting certain ages -no universal criteria of the choice age of what is an ADULT -cycle of old age is also ill defined Ex. loss of reproductive ability = biological marker (however, we‟re not prepared to say this is old now...useless to apply to men) -physical signs of old age = grey hair, baldness etc.  in this case, these things can happen to early, too late, or not at all -old age = subjective sense of decline; feeling you past your prime -measure of wisdom can also be associated with age  but this is problematic....not exactly clear that it peaks in old age (this happens more often in the middle years) -sociological criteria = becoming a grandparent, retirement, loss of your own parents (but this can happen at different times) -maturity and old age comes to us at different AGES -despite these limitations, society finds it useful to make these partitions  helps us avoid seeing people through distorted age stereotypes  question is: Should we continue doing this? SURGE OF INTEREST INTO ADULTHOOD & AGING ISSUES  Is importantly related to major demographic changes that have taken place worldwide, most notably among the more economically advantaged societies -G7 countries....notably among the more economically advanced societies THE „SQUARING‟ OF THE POPULATION PYRAMID  Current major demographic changes are expected to progressively lead to populations whose age distribution morphs from a pyramidal (triangular) shape, with many young and few old people, to a square, with increasingly similar representations of the various age groups -consisted of a large base of newborns and smaller of older people -pyramid = will morph into a square during this century Canada chart -(1901) this is a standard model that applied throughout history -(2001) shape has longer a pyramid -(2041) starting to look like a square, female portion is larger (they live longer) -Canada shares several characteristics with other societies....but also has their own unique ones KEY DEMOGRAPHIC TERMS  BIRTH RATE—the number of live births for every 1,000 people within a specified period -Birth rate = NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTH for every 1000 people  FERTILITY RATE—the average number of children born to mothers 15-49 years old within a specific period. FR needed to replace population: 2.1 -Fertility rate = AVERAGE NUMBER OF CHILDREN born to mothers within a period -Canada‟s fertility rate= 1.59 babies/woman -need 2 children to replace the parents -since the fertility rate is below replacement, use immigration to stave off population decline -this is where birth rate comes in -Canada has a high birth rate (during the 80s, Canada had the highest birth rate/low fertility rate than any other country AT THE SAME TIME) – many women were having kids, just having few kids -at present, fertility is well below replacement, we also have a very low birth rate -ex. in 2012, Canada‟s birth rate 10.3, global average is 19.5 (ex. US rate is almost 14....extremes, most African nations, Nigeria –largest territory- is 51%, Japan is 7.3%) -David Foot BUST, Boom and Echo: “Canada is the rapidly aging partner in NAFTA, Mexico is young and USA is relatively young” -“Even considering the high immigration levels of Canada (we have the highest intake in the world) by 2026, Canada will have more older people and no amount of immigration will change this. = looming labour shortage, slower economic growth” -trend points to this looming shortage -college enrolments peaked in 2011, and is expected to decline in the future -therefore try to get more immigrants  COHORT—a group of people born within a given period in a specific society -Cohort = demographers believe that the size of the cohort that you happen to be born in as an impact on your success in life -smaller, the better your chances....smaller cohort means you were in a smaller class in school, more attention = less competition, better chances  The success of a country is importantly determined by its demographics -success of a country = determined by its demographics = forecast success by seeing if there’s too many young people or too many old people -best = ready pool of young people, but not too many young people (high unemployment) -females = producing more youths = higher unemployment (not fact, just extrapolations) ex. Iran – politics has nullified economic success (low birth rate, and many educated females = should have good success) Russia and Japan = aging rapidly, they might no longer be economic future partners in Europe, exceptions are France and Scandinavian countries = they try to modulate demographic change Japan = oldest among all developed nations China= dramatically reduced pool of young people India = far too many people....negative, does not constitute as an advantage...predicts that the world‟s largest democracy faces economic problems US and Brazil, Indonesia (in good economic shape)..... other promising countries are Turkey and Mexico (have educated females, have high/but not excessively high birth rates) AGE PYRAMIND OF CANADA‟S POPULATION IN TERMS OF ITS COHORTS Age Pyramid, Cohorts -look at three recent cohorts: Baby Boomers, Baby Busters, Children of Baby-Boomers (Generation Y) -one of the distinguishing traits of Canada is the baby boom/width – 1946-1965 -baby boom = so many babies, makes up 1/3 of Canada’s population -at the height of the baby boom, Canadian women were averaging 4 children each, Canada‟s fertility rate was much higher and above replacement -Canada had the largest baby boom in the industrialized world baby boom countries= US, Australia, New Zealand immigrant receivers at the time tended to be in their 20s (prime child bearing years) -Also at that time, Canadians could comfortably afford things= good econ
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