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Lecture

Lecture 1 .docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY315H5
Professor
Craig Chambers
Semester
N/A

Description
PSY315 LECTURE 1 - how is it that we comprehend language? Acquisition – comprehension and learning - how do you construct the raw materials that give you the scaffolding that is needed to understand language? Consider the problem in reverse - how is that we encode those ideas that allow them to be expressed? - processes responsible for transduction and encoding of information are unconscious and implicit: not available for conscious evaluation – problem for researchers - if knowledge is implicit/unconscious – must have special ways to investigate it - using indirect methods – simply not ethical to use direct methods What knowledge must children acquire to become competent language users? - most basic level, what it means to know a language – having some inventory of speech sounds - language consist of something about sound - mental catalogue of speech sounds that you can understand and produce, and also have rules for combination - inventory of speech sounds: vowel sounds, consonant sounds o use these to your disposal both perceptually and articulatory - inventory is not the same in other languages - 13 vowels: North American English, 5 vowels: Spanish - know rules for combination: implicitly o languages have different rules for combination - inventory of words: mental dictionary – set of words that we know that are at our disposal o doesn’t mean that we all share the same inventory of words, but as individuals who speak English, we share a lot - know a set of rules for combining these words (morphemes) o or bits of words that have meaning - pragmatic competence – how to use language (contextually)  represent the targets of language HOW do children learn language? - explicit teaching o how are you going to teach the inventory of sounds?  Don’t know the information • Unlikely to be able to teach it explicitly - Imitation o Getting exposed to it, observing and mimicking o Hear the information, store it, and use it later on o Problem –  Children produce errors in course of learning language/ using it • Their errors are often very consistent to their peer group at that age • the way they are producing language doesn’t sound like the language they are producing from their parents o therefore, they aren’t particularly imitating their parents o don’t resemble the patterns they are being exposed to  if they are strictly imitating, lots of things that we would expect them to do that they can’t • see a progression in the way things go, which defy the patterns they ma
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