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Lecture 3

PSY315 - Lecture 3.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Craig Chambers

Lecture 3 1) stopping – subset of consonants where air flow is abruptly stopped and released a. block the air flow b. continuous sounds get turned into something that’s a stop c. silly  could be tiwi 2) final consonant devoicing a. when there is a consonant at the end of the word that is voiced, it comes out devoiced b. tend to devoice consonants at the end of the word 3) initial consonant voicing a. voice sounds at the beginning of the word 4) cluster reduction a. two consonants occur in sequence, not divided/separated by a vowel i. one of those consonants disappears 1. simplifying the cluster of consonants to end up with just one 5) fronting a. when consonants that are articulated towards the back of the roof of mouth get replaced with consonant that is articulated near the front of the mouth i. substitute consonants with ones that occur near the front of the mouth ii. thumb  fumb 1. thumb: involves tongue and teeth a. want to move it forward i. just the lip and teeth so it’s fumb 6) unstressed syllable deletion a. words that have more than one syllable i. ones that get weak stress tend to get eliminated 1. banana  nana 2. giraffe  raffe 7) final consonant deletion i. very last consonant word will get dropped 1. stop  ta a. also cluster reduction occurred 8) denasalization a. nasal consonants turn it into their correspondent non-nasal consonant versions i. mama  baba 1. only difference is whether there is air flowing through your nasal passages 2. sounds are produced the exact same way except for the flow of air 9) gliding a. consonants like “r” and “l” tend to turn into sounds like “w” b. see in older kids (into kindergarten)  these processes are universal to a certain degree (not tightly linked to phonological inventory of language)  relationship between emergence of particular sound and what children do in the meantime - can occur in combinations - silly  tilly o stopping o gliding - patterns are claimed to be universally observed - What’s going on? We know infants can distinguish sounds effectively o Perception precedes production - “fis-wabbit” phenomenon o problem specifically with production of sounds patterns of words  child could hear in adult’s speech that adult was saying it wrong • comprehension side: child knows the right sound pattern for that word  BUT • Even though the child knows that, child is unable to produce it themselves o Production problem  Knows the sound pattern of the word o Pronunciation does not mirror perceptual ability Kornfield (1971) - pictures shown to individual children - speech-recorder used to record individual responses - record what the child said - recording children were in the phase where they still mispronounced the sound pattern of words - “gwass” – gliding occurring in both pictures o grass and glass share sound pattern - analyses showed there was some phonetic differentiation although the child perceived it to be the same o minor differentiations; wasn’t complete homophony - child is making some kind of distinction using phonetic characteristics Ingram (1976) - should be pronounced “pay” o both should be the same - “may” and “pay” o Why did that come out ‘may’?  Something about nasal sound that turned ‘p’ to ‘m’ - Hypothesis: strategy of homophony avoidance: maintain distinction o Allowing the two words to be differentiated in some way ii. Children’s understanding of word meaning Default assumptions - simplifying assumptions about word meaning that can help narrow down candidate meanings o Whole object assumption  Child presented with new word • Child will assume the word maps onto the entire object and not a sub-part of it o Mutual exclusivity  Words that they don’t have meanings for • Ex. Suppose child in visual environment where there is a bottle, and child knows the word for bottle, and suppose there is also a wrench • Wrench is the new thing • Idea is that the child is not going to attach the word to the bottle because the child already has a label for that • So wrench must refer to the word that they don’t have a meaning for • Meanings are going to be mutually exclusive o Taxonomic assumption  Child will assume that the sound pattern denotes a kind of thing  Ex. Child hears “cat” don’t think it’s the name of that specific cat, but a term that they can use to apply to animals of that kind • Refers to taxonomy, and not a particular individual o Not a name that can refer to one instance - If you rely on mutual exclusivity, in which cases will you be wrong? o Synonyms  Pale vs. bucket - Taxonomic assumption problems o Names, or subordinate terms (ex. Poodle) o Where the term does not refer to some general category o Talking about something more specific Other cues: Shape bias - more attentional constraint - show a child a made up object, and show them an array of
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