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Lecture 6

Lecture 6

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Craig Chambers

Lecture 6 Development of Communicative Competence - no readings from Science Linguistic Competence + Communicative Competence - linguistic competence o Being able to understand/produce language - Communicative competence o Appropriate use of the language in communicative situations - Interdependent Piaget’s Egocentric Child - Egocentric o Language they use are about them o May appear as interactions, but they are collective monologues Communicative Competence - number of aspects - Conversational abilities Responding to questions - Respond to questions with actions - Child understands that something is expected from them - “Why” o Why requires abstract reasoning  Requires an explanation - “What” and “Where” o is more here and now - Child is more likely to respond with a full sentence with what they said - “You want what” o Child will answer with part of the previous utterance  The part that they want Initiating topics - Topics are primarily initiated towards adults - More likely to talk to an adult than a peer Sustaining dialogue - Important to keep on talking to some extent - Changes topic not related to question - Stop mimicking the previous utterance o Doesn’t present any new information - Answer to comment appropriately and also present some kind of new information - MLU – Mean Length Utterance o Average how long the phrases that a child can produce are - When children are interacting with peers at this age o Important that both children have some kind of shared knowledge of the activity they are in  Helps conversation to continue Pragmatic Abilities - Going beyond literal meaning o metaphor, verbal irony Metaphor in a narrative - 3-year olds chose the correct choice 3 times, and the incorrect choice 3 times – 50/50 - 4 year olds chose the correct choice more times o Able to comprehend the metaphor embedded in the story - Mean Justification Score Lecture 6 o Providing some kind of justification  Difference between age 4 and 5 is much bigger • Age 4 – cannot really verbalize why they chose the answer to the same extent as 5 year olds can Socio-communicative Abilities - Adapting to your conversational partner Politeness - Order of emergence for politeness dimensions: o “Please” first  Could be because parents stress that more than conditional/formal address o Intonation – lexical strategy o Conditional/formal address – syntactic strategies  Must have a good command of the syntactic Perspective-taking - Taking what the other person believes/thinks into context Can children distinguish ambiguous/unambiguous descriptions from the listener? - Child doesn’t know location: o 4 year olds: YES o 6 year olds: YES - Child knows location: o 4 year olds: NO o 6 year olds: YES Nilsen et al. 2008 - Response latencies o How long does it take for the child to evaluate whether the description is ambiguous or not - Child doesn’t know location: o 4 year olds: YES - Child knows location: o 4 year old: NO  Still failed  Took them longer to say ‘no’ - Depends on how you look at the child’s behaviour Nadig & Sedivy - 5 year old wearing eye tracker (tracks where you are looking as you comprehend language) - Shell contained two random objects and two glasses - One glass was visible to both child/experimenter - And another glad visible to only the child (experimenter couldn’t see the glass) - 5 year olds: o Look at the glass that’s visible to both the experimenter and the child  Able to suppress their own perspective, and look at the glass shared between the two Moll & Tomasello - Control condition o Experimenter comes back in the room and asks for the child to give them the toy o Child still understands that the experimenter is asking for the toy o “Give me a toy”  Signifies a choice Lecture 6 - Experimental condition o Confusion as to which toy they are asking for o Give me the toy  Specifies one o Experimenter cannot see the toy
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