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PSY295 - Chapter 3 (Organization of The Nervous System) (2).docx

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Katherine Krpan

PSY 295 CHAPTER 3: ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Ischemia a deficiency of blood flow to the brain due to functional constriction or to the actually obstruction of a blood vessel (i.e. by a clot) Stroke interruption of blood to the brain; kills brain cells causing sudden appearance of neurological symptoms Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA) a treatment that can be used for ischemic strokes; breaks up blood clots and allows the return of normal blood flow to the affected region Ipsilateral structures that lie on the same side Contralateral structures that lie opposite of one another Bilateral one structure lies in each of the hemispheres Nuclei groups of cells forming clusters that can be visualized with special strains to identify a functional grouping Proximal structures that are close to one another Distal structures that are far from one another Afferent any movement toward a brain structure Efferent any movement away from a brain structure Precentral Gyru a part of the brain damaged by stroke in R.S. and responsible for his diminished motor ability Meninges triple-layered set of membranes within the bony case enclosing the CNS Parasympathetic Nerves the calming nerves; rest and digest Sympathetic Nerves arousing nerves (for engaging in vigorous activity); fight and flee Cerebral Security a triple layered covering, the meninges, encases the brain and spinal cord, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cushions them Hydrocephalus (means water brain) cerebral spinal fluid is continually being made and drained off into the circulatory system. If this outflow is blocked, severe mental retardation can occur Blood Brain Barrier the brain and the spinal cord are protected from many chemical substances circulating in the rest of the body through this barrier Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) irrigates the medial and dorsal part of the cortex Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) irrigates the lateral surface of the cortex Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) irrigates the ventral and posterior surfaces of the cortex Neural Stem Cell (AKA germinal cell) the brains single origin cell Progenitor Cells migrates and acts as precursor cells, giving rise to blasts Blasts nondividing, primitive types of nervous system cells Sensory Neuron brings information to the central nervous system; a form of bipolar neuron Bipolar Neuron consists of a cell body with a dendrite on one side and an axon on the other Somatosensory Neurons project from the bodys sensory receptors into the spinal cord; modified so that the dendrite and axon are connected; speeds information conduction: messages dont have to pass through the cell body Interneurons: associate sensory and motor activity in the CNS Motor Neurons sends signals from the brain and spinal cord to muscles; located in the brain stem Gray Matter acquires its characteristic gray-brown colour from the capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies that predominate there White Matter consists of axons that extend from cell bodies to form connections with neurons in other brain areas Reticular Matter mixture of cell bodies and axons; which it acquires its gray and white or netlike appearance Tract a large collection of axons projecting to or away from a nucleus or layer in the CNS (AKA fibre pathway) Nerves fibres and fibre pathways that enter and leave the CNS Prosencephalon (front brain) responsible for olfaction Mesencephalon (middle brain) the seat of vision and hearing Rhombencephalon (hind brain) controls movement and balance Telecephalon (end brain) collectively, the prosencephalon develops further to form the cerebral hemispheres (the cortex and related structures) Diencephalon (between brain) the remaining part of the old prosencephalon and the thalamus Metencephalon (across brain) a portion of the back part of the brain; it includes the enlarged cerebellum Myelencephalon (spinal brain) the lower region of the brain stem Ventricles the four prominent pockets created by the folding of the brain matter Dermatomes (skin cuts) segments that encircle the spinal column as a stack of rings Dorsal Root spinal nerve fibres; converge as they enter the spinal cord, forming a strand of fibres; the dorsal root Ventral Root a strand of spinal nerves formed by efferent fibres leaving the ventral (anterior in humans) part of the spinal cord, carrying information from the spinal cord to the musclesPSY 295 Bell-Magendie Law the principle that the dorsal part of the spinal cord is sensory and the ventral part is motor Paraplegic a person whose spinal cords are cut so that they no longer have control over their legs Quadriplegic a person with cuts higher up on their spinal cords, making them unable to use their arms or legs Reflexes: specific movements elicited by specific forms of sensory stimulation Flexion the stimulation of pain and temperature receptors in a limb usually produces flexion movements that bring the limb inward, toward the body and away from injury Extension stimulation of fine touch; muscle receptors in a limb extend the limb outward, away from the body Cranial Nerves set of 12 pairs of nerves conveying sensory and motor signals to and from the head Ganglia collections of nerve cells that function somewhat like a primitive brain and it controls the internal organs Referred Pain pain in the internal organs that are perceived as coming from the outer parts of the dermatome (i.e. pain in the heart is felt in the arm or shoulder) Cerebellum most distinctive part of the hindbrain; protrudes above the core of the brainstem; surface is gathered into narrow folds (folia) like the gyri and sulci of the cortex but smaller; necessary for fine, coordinated movements Reticular Formation the network within the core of the hindbrains mixture of nuclei and fibres Tectum (roof) the roof of the third ventricle; located dorsally Tegmentum (floor) the floor of the third ventricle; located ventrally Superior Colliculi (upper hills) receive projections from the retina and mediate visually related behaviour Inferior Colliculi (lower hills) receive projections from the ear and mediate many auditory-related behaviours Substantia Nigra (black substance) connected to the forebrain, a connection important for reward and for initiating movements Hypothalamus comprising of about 22 small nuclei and the fibre systems that pass through it, interacts with the pituitary gland Thalamus the largest structure in the diencephalon, is composed of 20-odd large nuclei, each of which projects to a specific area of the cerebral cortex Epithalamus a collection of nuclei at the posterior of the diencephalon; overall function is poorly understood but one of its structures (the pineal gland) secretes the hormone melatonin which influences daily and seasonal body rhythms and another structure (the habenula) regulates hunger and thirst Basal Ganglia
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