There are 3 headings and each theory falls under one of them:
Management theories: Behaviour modification and assertive discipline
Non-directive: Democratic discipline, Choice theory and positive behaviour
Leadership theories: Teacher effectiveness training, Responsible thinking
Process and Pain.
1. Explain the positive and negative effects of practice for providing students
with rewards to shape behaviour.
-Behaviour modification model:
Introducing rewards is referred to as positive reinforcement.
Withholding punishment is known as negative reinforcement.
MANIPULATION OF REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS:
Increase Appropriate Behaviour:
Introduce rewards = POSITIVE REINFORECEMENT
Withhold punishments= NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
Decrease inappropriate behaviour:
Introduce punishments = PUNISHMENT
Withhold rewards= ATTENTION WITHDRAWAL, RESPONSE COST &
There are four types of REINFORCERS:
- Tangible reinforcers, i.e. stickers, lollies, star, etc.
- Acknowledgement of effort and good work, i.e. Supportive gestures,
supportive verbal or written comments, high fives etc.
- Individual activities as reinforcers, i.e. free time with peers or teacher,
enjoyable work, listening to music, going first, visiting library, etc.
- Group activities as reinforcers, i.e. system of merit points, group games,
class party, excursions, treasure box, etc.
Some problems with rewards:
- It us assumed that rewards will increase the quality and quantity of children’s
school work, in addition to eliminating discipline problems, without doing any
- The more rewards used, the more they seem to be NEEDED. Whereas children
may be inclined to learn without being rewarded before rewards are instituted,
afterwards they may refuse to learn WITHOUT them.
- External rewards may create sine unanticipated problems for teachers who use
them in the classroom. They may undermine intrinsic motivation and cause
children to lose interest in learning without rewards being supplied. They may
also reduce the quality of work the children do.
- Rewards may be effective in the short term - Helps students learn to distinguish acceptable behaviour rapidly
- May reduce the incidence of the inappropriate behaviour in all class members.
2. Describe how the following song lyrics could be used to explain assertive
You got to accentuate the positive
Eliminate the negative
And latch on to the affirmative
Don't mess with Mister In-Between
No, don't mess with Mister In-Between
Assertive behaviour: Clearly communicating wants and feelings to students and
indicating a willingness to back up own words with actions if necessary.
Accentuating the positive would mean to FOCUS on the positive
Eliminating the negative would be getting RID of the negative
Latching on to the affirmative would mean to MAINTAIN and GRASP
Don’t mess with mister in-between, focus on the positive, get rid of the
negative, maintain the affirmative and leave it at that.
- Students and young people need adults to set and enforce strict limits.
- Students must be forced to comply with rules
- Students cannot be expected to determine appropriate rules and follow
- Teachers have their own needs and rights and cannot allow students to
choose disruptive behaviours
- Teachers (supported by parents) must enforce rules.
Teachers may respond to student’s actions in one of three ways. They may be:
- Non-assertive: Non-assertive teachers fail to let their students clearly
know what they want and what they will not accept
- Hostile: Teachers who use hostile response style address students in an
abusive way; they make derogative remarks and often lose their temper.
- Assertive: When teachers respond assertively, they clearly communicate
their wants and feelings to their students and indicate a willingness to
back up their words with actions if necessary.
The establishment of firm rules gives assertive discipline a somewhat preventive
orientation. When students’ know the rules and associated punishments, these
punishments act as deterrents. If the punishments are visible enough and applied
consistently, many students will try and avoid them. Corrective Strategies:
1. Create positive student-teacher relationships
2. Establish rules or expectations
3. Track misbehaviour
4. Use negative consequences to enforce limits
5. Implement a system of consequences
6. Establish strong parent support.
The above strategies interlace with the following song lyrics:
1. Accentuate the positive
2. Eliminate the negative
3. Latch on to the affirmative
4. Don’t mess with mister in-between
Assertive discipline can be organised on a school-wide basis.
Step 1: create rules- these rules usually define unacceptable behaviour on the
school grounds, in the hallways, in the lunch room, playground and even off the
school grounds when children are travelling to and from school.
Step 2: Negative consequences for violating school-wide rules are similar to
those implemented in individual classrooms. Children are given a slip for each
rule violation, each slip has a consequence.
Some issues to consider with assertive discipline:
- Power-based model: emphasised obedience to authority in preference to
teaching students to be responsible.
- Research into assertive discipline: It was found that there was a general
lack of focus in these studies on evaluating the effectiveness of assertive
- Short-term versus long term effects: Emphasise on the use of rewards in
order to condition students to act appropriately. While assertive discipline
does work, by ignoring the causes of the problems, it is merely treating
the symptoms of the maladaptive behaviour.
- Functionality: Rules, consequences, rewards and recognition need to be
modified to suit the different ages, needs and interests of the students, but
the essential principles of the model remain unchanged in different
- Model Cohesion (unity) : a cohesive and thoughtfully constructed
personal philosophy of classroom management can provide the
foundation from which teachers make classroom management decisions
and respond to instances of student misbehaviour.
- Use of punishment: Assertive discipline relies heavily on punishment and
negative consequences to improve students’ behaviour.
- Use of assertive discipline by student teachers: Students may get
confused as they are not used to it. - Improving the use of assertive discipline: some states are reluctant to use
it. 3. Could you use Glasser’s model of choice theory to analyse the behaviour
of a child who appears hostile and defiant. How would Glasser manage the
child in the following?
- William Glasser believes that for students to stop and evaluate their behaviours
that negatively impact on other students or staff, the educators need to use verbal
and non-verbal behaviours that connect and value the students as people.
- Another understanding is that all behaviour is purposeful and that a student is
behaving to meet a basic biological or psychological NEED.
- A meaning that focuses on education rather than punishment is required if
educators want to be successful in helping students learn more effective,
responsible behaviours that enable themselves and others to learn.
Choice Theory (reality therapy and lead management) explains why and how
All of our behaviour is purposeful and the purpose is always to attempt to satisfy
the basic biological and psychological needs:
- Survival, safety and security
- Love, belonging and acceptance
- Power, competency and achievement
- Fun and learning
- Freedom, independence and autonomy
The theory is called CHOICE THEORY because Glasser believes that
all behaviour is our best attempt at the moment to control ourselves (so
that we can control the world around us) as we continually try to satisfy
one or more of those basic needs.
The only behaviour a person has control over is their own.
One person cannot ‘make’ another person do anything that the person
chooses not to do.
Choice theory provides the reason why authoritarian management does
not, and will not, result in long-term behaviour change.
REALITY THERAPY is a method of interviewing based on Choice
When counsellors or teachers use the reality therapy process, they aim to
help individuals or students gain more effective control over their own
The reality therapy process helps facilitators develop effective
counselling and management skills. Students develop responsibility so that they learn to choose behaviours
that satisfy their needs and at the same time, do not deprive others of a
chance to do the same.
LEAD MANAGEMENT draws on the work of W. Edwards Deming
and the Total Quality Management movement.
Glasser used Deming’s framework to transfer Deming’s ideas of a quality
organisation to the school setting and postulate that students, like
employees, are involved in a learning community that strives for more
The ideas of lead management provide a framework for school-wide
behavioural strategies that are consistent with the strategies of Choice
Theory and reality therapy. 5. COULD YOU: defend or refute the assumption that students
inherently rebel when others try to control their behaviour?
The problem dictates the child’s behaviour therefore, the teacher can’t control the
child’s behaviour unless they address the underlying problem that dictates their
behaviour, and this leads to rebellion.
- Pain Model = teacher can’t control their behaviour.
Social problems such as unemployment, homelessness, skill-lessness,
meaninglessness, domestic violence, abuse, etc can cause psychological pain.
When high-risk students are fearful, stressed and experiencing psychological
or inner pain as a result of one or more of these social problems, teachers
need to calm them and relieve the pain before working with them further.
Teachers have more patience and are less stressed when they understand that
the cause of student’s behaviour is the pain they are experiencing
To prevent these situations: develop relationships, give clear instructions and
care for teachers.
- Choice theory, one of the main contentions: rather than the environment
controlling the behaviour, the behaviour is motivated internally. Behaviour is
motivated by the five basic needs: freedom, independence and autonomy. ---
- Too much control causes rebellion, you shouldn’t be controlling them you
should be shaping their behaviour.
- Democratic theory, dieikus: they say they prevention is based on democratic
Beliefs about children: they actively make meaning of events and make
choices to meet their needs. Link to choice theory because the need is
freedom, independence and autonomy.
- TET says that students commonly rebel when their teachers actively
regulate their behaviour and the theory behind it is that good communication
and democratic relationships will prevent misbehaviour.
- Caring and deadly habits: teacher: nagging, criticising, blaming = deadly
habits…on the other hand, supporting, encouraging etc are caring habits. 6.