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Lecture 5

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Simone Walker

1Psy321Lecture 5 February 14 2014CultureEmotionSimone Walker PhDFebruary14 2014Lecture OutlineWhat are emotionsUniversality of emotionsBasic emotionsCultureregulation of basic emotions Cultureemotional experienceCulturevalues concepts beliefs attitudes about emotionConsider the Ilongot of the Northern Philippines They have an emotion called the liget which closest translates to anger passion energy Liget is the key aspect of their lifeWhat Are EmotionsTransient neurophysiological reactions to events that have consequences for our welfare and require an immediate behavioural response So they are more than just feelings Mood tends to be longer lasting than emotion EncompassFeelingsPhysiological reactions For example racing heart or sweaty palmExpressive behaviours For example facial expressions Behavioural intentionsCognitive changes We also have several theories of emotionthere are two very influential theoriesin fact most other theories have arisen from their theoriesJamesLange TheoryEmotionsEmotions are bodily response to stimuli in the environmentPrepares us for actionThe bodily responses is the fearEach emotion associated with different physiological sensationEx Embarrassment and blood rushing to the face Ex Fear and pounding of the heart Fear IS the pounding of the heart TwoFactor Theory EmotionsInterpretation of bodily responses He believed that autonomic system is just too slow to be producing complex emotions2He believed they do involve bodily sensations but also involved persons interpretation of the bodily responses Ex Stanley SchacterJerome SingerInterpretation of physiological arousalEx Fear versus Love We use different cues in the situation to help us interpret our bodily sensations You might have the same pounding heart even when you are with a very attractive partner rather than just being in a stressful situation So same bodily sensations in fear and in love but different interpretationsExperiment procedure They told subjects they were testing the effects of a vitamin supplement on vision Some subjects received an injection of epinephrine a drug that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system Others received a placebo The authors were interested in what happens if you covertly induce a physiological change in a subject will they cognitively assign an emotional state to their bodies heightened arousal when they have no apparent causal reason for their bodily changes However if the person does have a causal reason ie they know they are receiving a drug then they can rationalize the experience and wont have an emotional reaction In other words does a person react emotionally only when he experiences physiological changesPlacebo given a placebo and were told that this wont have any effect on your arousalEpinephrineinformed given epinephrine and told that this will increase arousalEpinephrineuninformed epinephrine given but not told what it wasEpinephrinemisinformed epinephrine given but was misinformed that it would make them feel numb itchy and give them a headacheAfter the epinephrine injections they manipulated the emotional fuel of the subjects by putting them in a room with a confederate that 1 behaved euphorically shooting paper wads into trash can making paper airplanes and 2 behaved angrily becomes increasingly angry over filling out an insulting questionnaire They were asked what emotion they were feeling And how strong the emotion was Observers were also watching the participants and coding their behavior EUPHORIAANGERPLACEBO true no effect Relatively little euphoria no Relatively little anger no on arousalarousalarousalEPINEPHRINERelatively little euphoria Relatively little anger INFORMED true arousal attributed to arousal attributed to increase arousalinjectioninjectionEPINEPHRINEMuch euphoria arousal Much anger arousal UNINFORMED false no attributed to situationattributed to situationeffect on arousalEPINEPHRINEMost euphoria arousal X didnt run this conditionMISINFORMED false attributed to situationdecrease arousalResults Physiologically the epinephrine had the desired effect of raising heart rate and subject
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