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Lecture 7

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Simone Walker

1Psy321 Lecture 7 March 14 2014Culture PersonalityThe SelfLecture OutlineCulturePersonalityThe FiveFactor ModelCulturespecific personalitiesCultureThe selfIndependent and interdependent selfconstrual theoryCulture selfesteem selfenhancement and attribution stylesWhat is PersonalityA set of relatively enduring behavioural and cognitive characteristics traits and predispositions So personality is relatively stable according to this definition Researchers say that personality doesnt change much after adolescence Take them with you into different situations contexts and interactions with othersContribute to individual differences among individuals So personality is what makes us different from each otherAmerican psychology westernA fundamental or core personality exists and is relatively stable across different contexts situations and time So it doesnt change because of social situations and it becomes crystallized according to American culture But in other cultures Stable traits are less important than situational or contextual variations More emphasis on the situations which determine how the person behaves Trait one of the ways of conceptualizing personalityA characteristic or quality distinguishing a person So personality is based upon traits which make us different from each otherIdentity another way of conceptualizing personalityCollection of perceived roles aggregate roles life experiences narratives values and motives Identity includes traits but it is more than thatit includes the roles you play your life experiences life stories that help you find meaning motivations etc Perspectives on Personality two main ways of thinking about how a Personality as universal eticRooted in the study of traits So stable across time and situation According to this culture does not play a roleeveryone has personality traits regardless of the culture Personality organization and dimensions are universal and somewhat biologically innatePersonality as culturespecific emicIndigenous personalitiesDifferences across people emerge from cultures for example due to different values So personality is dependent upon culture according to this viewPersonality depends on the cultures in which they exist CrossCultural Measurement of Personality implicationsEtic 2Personality can be measured in similar way across culturesCrosscultural comparisons of measurementsEmicBecause cultures differ and personality is rooted in culture so it will be Difficult if not impossible to create valid measures of personality across culturesEticWe all have same traits but different level of those traits so it assumes conceptual equivalenceAssumes conceptual equivalence so traits have the same meaning across culturesMeasures must be reliable and valid across culturesMost measures originally developed in a single language and culture So we cannot assume that our measures will be equally valid across cultures or if they will be reliable across cultures If there is no psychometric equivalence then you cant make a comparison accurately across culturesA lot of work goes into examining and ensuring sound psychometric properties of a measureEx Testretest reliability internal consistency splithalf reliability convergent divergent predictive validities replicability of factor structureFor reliability we can look at internal consistencya measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test or the same subscale on a larger test It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores For example if a respondent expressed agreement with the statements I like to ride bicycles and Ive enjoyed riding bicycles in the past and disagreement with the statement I hate bicycles this would be indicative of good internal consistency of the testTest retest reliability Testretest reliability is a measure of the consistency of a psychological test or assessment This kind of reliability is used to determine the consistency of a test across time Testretest reliability is measured by administering a test twice at two different points in time Parallel form split half reliability an evaluation of the internal consistency of a test by splitting test items randomly into two halves and comparing participants performance on the two halves The two scores should correlate highly if the test is internally reliableConvergent validity refers to the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related are in fact relatedFor instance to show the convergent validity of a test of mathematics skills the scores on the test can be correlated with scores on other tests that are also designed to measure basic mathematics ability High correlations between the test scores would be evidence of convergent validityDivergent validity tests whether concepts or measurements that are supposed to be unrelated are in fact unrelatedPredictive validityis the extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion measure For example the validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the correlation between test scores and for example supervisor performance ratings Such a cognitive
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