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Lecture 4

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Simone Walker

1Psy321Lecture 4 February 7 2014Culture CognitionPerceptionSimone Walker PhDLecture OutlineCultureVisual perceptionCategorizationAttentionProblem solvingTolerance for contradictionCreativityIntelligenceSocial CognitionConsciousness textbook talks about this read from the textbookIntroductionImagine walking through a museumoVariations in artistic traditions across culturesWhyMatter of conventionsDifferent in underlying psychological processesoMasuda et al 2008Different in how people fromdifferent cultures see the worldEast Asian pictures had higher horizons in the landscapes and the size of the portraits were smaller than western picturesoCognitive tools that are available to all people butUsed with different frequency or for different purposesType of universal Maybe existential universalsBasic Psychological ProcessesSensationInput about the physical world provided by our sensory receptorsPerceptionThe process through which we select organize and interpret input from our sensory receptorsWe do not perceive the world as it iswe just interpret itCognitionThe activities involved in thinking reasoning decisionmaking memory problemsolving and all other forms of higher mental processesCultureVisual Perception one of the areas where we see cultural differencesOptical illusions Perceptions that involve an apparent discrepancy between how an object looks and what it actually isEx The MuellerLyer illusionMueller Lyer IllusionParticipants asked to judge which line is longer From nonwestern cultures and nonindustrialized cultures think that the lines are the same length When you ask westerners they tend to say that the top line is longer So people from more industrialized and western cultures are susceptible to this optical illusion 2Carpentered World Theory explains why we have Mueller lyer illusionWhen two objects occupy the same size retinal imagethe more distant object is largerRetinal object sizeSame retinal sizethe farther figure is largerCarpentered World TheoryWhen two objects occupy the same size retinal imagethe more distant object is largerThe arrowheads give us the sense of anglessuch as those formed where a wall meets a floor or where two lines of a roof meetIn western cultures we are used to a carpentered worldwe use corners and angles to judge distanceWe experience the line with the outwardpointing arrowheads as longer because it seems to indicate a line that is farther away than the line with inwardpointing arrowheadsWe perceive the bottom line as shorter because it is closer to us and the top line is longer because it is far awayHorizontalVertical Illusion
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