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Canada (508,933)
Psychology (4,206)
PSY325H5 (88)
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Chapter 2 The Scientific Method in Psychology Goal of quantitative psychology is the explanation of behaviourNeed language that is precise enough to be understood by others and general enough to apply it to a variety of situationsthis language takes the form of explanations which are general statements about events that cause phenomena to occurScientific methodagreedupon approach to discovery and explanation oSet of rules that dictate general procedures a scientist must follow in researchoRules are based on logic and common senseThree types of scientific researchNaturalistic observationsobservation of behaviour of people or animals in their natural environment oLeast formal and constrained by fewest rulesoProvide foundation of biological and social sciencesCorrelational studiesexamination of relations between 2 measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or animalsoInvolve more formal measurements of environmental events of individuals physical and social characteristics and of their behaviour Experimentsstudy which researcher changes value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation effects value of dependent variable oOnly research which can confirm existence of causeandeffect relations among variables Five steps summarizing the rules of scientific method1 Identify the problem and formulate hypothetical causeandeffect relations among variablesInvolves identifying variables behaviours and environmental and physiological events and describing relations among them in general terms2 Design the experiment experiments involve manipulation of independent variables and observation of dependent variables each variable must be operationally defined and independent variable must be controlled so that it is only thing responsible for changes to dependent variable3 Perform experimentorganize material train people to perform it recruit volunteers randomly assign volunteers to experimental group of control group4 Evaluate hypothesis by examining data from studyInvolves special mathematical procedures used to determine whether observed effect is statistically significant
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