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Lecture 6

PSY333 Lecture 6 .pdf

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Laura Simich

PSY333 Lecture 6 Stress and Moderators of the Stress experience. no better link between psychology and health than stress. STRESS DEFINED: geared towards altering the event or accomodating to it's effects. Stress:negative emotional experience can have positive outcome Accompanied by: - biochemical - physiological - cognitive - Behavioural changes SOURCES OF STRESS: - jobs,school,work,time, 1. Relationships:College students:1/3 stressful events caused by relationships A. - Married couples up to 80% B. - how to spend money C. work family time balance D. fair distribution of childcare/household tasks E. illness divorce 2.Work pressure ⿞long hours,constant deadlines,responsibility ‣ exam ⿞my life is in you hands jobs - high stress (doctor,firefigher,air traffic controller) ⿞cowrokers/bosses lack of resources,physcial environment ⿞longer commutes= higher stress,cortisol levels related to length of travel time COMMUTER STUDY ⿞LOOKEDAT 200 adult commuters ⿞higher cortisol with longer commute cortisol = stress hormone ⿞Looked at a vigilance task,proofreading an esay and correctily finding errors,number of errors caught was inversely related to length of commute. 3.Environmental pressures • Noisy,crowding,natural disasters - poverty 4.Internal conflict - torn between goals (travel/work;eat/lose weight) 5.Lack of control -Wait in line at post office;traffic jam - illness diagnosis STRESS DEFINED has 2 components: - Phsyical:involves direct material or bodily challenge - Psychological:invovles how we perceive circumstances in our lives Three ways of examining stress: 1.Stress as stiumulus:focus on environment physical and psychological challenges (stressors) 2.Stress as response: -Focus on people's reactions - Physical (heart pounds,mouth dry) & psychological (thought/emotion patterns) reactions 3.Stress as a process - Relationship between person and environment -Transactions = continuous interactions and adjustments - Person and environment affecting and being affected by each other Stress:the circumstance in which transactions lead a person toe perceive a discrepancy between physical or psychological demands of a stituation and the resources to meet those demands (biological,psychological,social). Lazarus = psychological view of stressors Appraisal theory - PrimaryAppraisal -Perception of new or changing environment as beneficial,neutral,or negative in its consequences - harm,threat,challenge? - SecondaryAppraisal -Assessment of ones coping abilities and resources and judgement as to whether they will be sufficeint to meet the harm,threat,or challenge Psychology and Stress -Stress Appraising events as harmful,threatening,or challengeing ,and assessing one's capacity to respond to those events events exceed resources = stress Stress is in the eye of the beholder - Individual differences are huge factors - stressful for one not stressful for another - perceptions of discrepancies between environmental demands and actual resources - Can be either real or just believed to esist - stres often results from inaccurate perceptions FACTORS LEADINGTO STRESSFULAPPRAISALS 1.personal factors:inellect,motivation personality • 2.Sef esteem:higher- more likely to meet demands ⿞- bad situation but I can overcome it therefore challenge • 3.Motivation:more important threatened goal= more stress • 4.Belief system:irrational beliefs increase stress 2.Situational factors • Events that involve strong demands and are iminent tend to be seen as more stressful • Ex.shitty medical procedure tomorrow Valence - negative events are more likely to produce stress than are postive events (shopping,party planning =+ stress0 Control - Uncontrollable or unpredictable events are more stressful than contorllable or predictable events Clarity -Ambiguos events are often perceived as more stressful than are clear cut events Burden - overlaoded people are more stressed than are people with fewer tasks to perform Domains - MOre vulnerable to stress in central life domans than in peripheral ones. BIOLOGICALASPECTS OF STRESS - Phsyiological reactions to stress - Increased heart rate,breathing,muscles tremble (arms and legs) - body is aroused and motivated to defend itself - sympathetic nervours system and endocrine system cause this arousal - REACTIVITY - physiological portion of stress response - measured against a baseline (resting) level of arousal - influencedby genetic factors,chronic stress Canon (1932) -We are usually in a state of internal balance (homeostasis) - feel threatened - Phsyiological response mobilizes body to act - Shift resources from nonessential body systems to those that are needed to meet the challenge. FIGHT OR FLIGHT -Activate SNS and ES -Andrenomedullary response - epinephrine,norepinephrine - Rise in Epi and NE inc HR,BP,breathing;widen pupils movement of blood to muscles Positive and negative effects - adaptive:fast mobilization in response to danger - But:prolonged arousal can be harmful to health GeneralAdaptation Sydnrome (GAS) - extended canon's work to describe the stages a body goes through in reaction to stress - Rats exposed to different stressons (cold,electric shock) -Stress response is always the same phsyiologically - Physiological response - enlarged adrenal cortex - smaller thymus and lymph glands - immunity - Ulceration of the stomach 1.Alarm reaction - Sns:epi and nE =Hypothalamus pitutatiy adrenal HPA axis:glucocorticoids cortisol - Cortisol:increasesATP production form glucose,inhibits inflammation 2.Resistance - Strong stressor continues but is not severe enough to cause death - Body continues to work to resist stressor = physiological arousal remains high - boy replenishes adrenal hormones 3.Exhaustion - resources are limited - epi and cortisol can damage heart and blood vessels,suppress immune system - disease and damage to internal organs is likely -All stressors produce same physiological response - Positive stress (e.g.getting married) less harmful than negative stress (e.g.getting divorced),both can lead to same negative physiological response. Updates to flight or flight and GAS models - people may vary in how they r
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