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PSY341H5 (46)

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Anna Grivas Matejka

LECTURENOTESPSY341INTRO TO NORMAL AND ABNORMAL BEHAVIOURLecture 1 Jan 10RESEARCH STUDIES SEEL TOdefine normal and abnormal beh for kidsidentify the cases and correlates of abnormal behmake predictions about longterm outcomesdevelop and evaluate methods for treatment andor preventionFEATURES THAT DISTINGUISH CHILDADOLESCENT DISORDERSwhen adults seek services for children it is not often clear whose problem it ismany child and adolescent problems involve a failure to show expected developmental progressmany problem beh shown by childrenyouths are not entirely abnormalinterventions for childrenado are often intended to promote further development rather than merely to restore a previous level of functioning HISTORICAL VIEWSancient greekroman viewdisabled were an economic burdenbefore 18th centurychildrens mental health problems were ignoredchildren were subjected to harsh treatmentby end of 18th centuryinterest in abnormal child beh surfaced although strong church influence attributed beh to childrens uncivilized and provocative natureOrillia asylum for idiotsPROGRESSIVE LEGISLATIONIDEAindividuals with disab education actFAPE for children with special needseach child must be assessed with culturally appropriateIEP for each child united nations general assembly 2007WHAT IS ABN BEH IN KIDSADOLESCENTSkid disorders are accompanied by various layers of abnormal beh or devmust understand childrens individual strengths and abilities in order to assist them in healthy adaptationmust also be sensitive to each childs stage of dev disorders are commonly viewed as deviances from normal DEFINING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERSpatterns of beh cognitive emotional or physical symptoms associated with one or more pf the followingdistressdisabilityincreased risk for further suffering or harmcultural background1LECTURENOTESPSY341describes beh not causeslabels describe behaviour not peoplechallenge of stigmaimportant to separate the child from the disorderproblems may be the result of childrens attempts to adapt to abnormal or unusual circumstancesconsistent with DSMIVTR the primary purpose of using terms is to help describe organize and express complex features of beh patternsCOMPETENCEability to succesfully adapt in the environmentdefinitions of abn child beh must take into account the childs competencetheir ability to use internal and external resources to achieve a successful adaptationmust consider the degree of maladaptive beh and also the extent to which they achieve normal dev milestonesknowledge of developmental tasks ie conduct and academic achievement is fundamental for determining developmental progress and impairments INFANCYPRESCHOOLMIDDLE CHILDHOODADOLESCENCEattachment to caregiversschool adjustmentsuccessful transition to languageattendence appropriate secondary schoolingacademic achievementdifferentiation of self from conductacademic achievementlearning skills needed for envselfcontrol and complianceie learning to read arithmetichigher edu or workgetting along with peersinvolvement in extracurricular acceptance making friendsactivitiesie athletics clubsrulegoverned conductforming close friendships within following rules of society for and across gendermoral beh and prosocial forming a cohesive sense of conductselfidentityDEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYSsequence and timing of particular behaviours and possible relationships btwn beh over time two types of developmental pathwaysmultifinalityie early childhood maltreatmenteating disorder mood disorder conduct disorder normal adjustmentequifinalityie genetic pattern family characteristics environmental featuresconduct disorderby looking at possible developmental pathways we gain a better understanding of the ways in which childrens problems may change or remain over timemany contributors to disordered outcomes in each childcontributors vary among kids who have disorderschildren expess features of their disturbances in diff wayspathways leading to particular disorders are numerous and interactive not unidimensional and staticRISK AND RESILIENCERISK FACTOR variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and increases the chances that the outcome will occurtypically involve acute stressful situations as well as chronic adversity2LECTURENOTESPSY341PROTECTIVE FACTOR personal or situational variable that reduces the chances for a child to develop a disorderRESILIENCE ability to fight off or recover from misfortunenot a universal categorical or fixed attributeconnected to a protective triad of resources and health promoting eventsstrength or child family schoolcommunityINDIVIDUALFAMILYSCHOOLCOMMUNITYgood intellectual functioningclose relationship to caring adults outside the family who appealing sociable easygoing parent figuretake an interest in promoting authoritative parenting the childs welfaredispositionconnections to social selfefficacy selfconfidence warmth structure high expectationsorganizationshigh selfesteemsocioeconomic advantagesattendance at effective talentsconnections to extended schools faithsupportive family networksTHE SIGNIFICANCE OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG CHILDREN AND YOUTH1 in 8 children including infants and toddlers has mental health problemsmany others are at risk for later dev of psy disorderthe majority of childrenyouth needing mental health services dont receive themdemand for childs mental health services is expected to double over next decadeTHE CHANGING PICTURE OF CHILDRENS MENTAL HEALTHpast children with mental health and educational needs were described in global terms maladjustedtoday better ability to distinguish among disorders has given rise to increased and earlier recognition of problemsthere is now greater awareness of younger kids and teens unique mental health issuesgreater attention is being paid to evidencebased prevention and treatment programs mental health problems are more likely seen in which childrendisadvantaged families and neighbourhoodsabusive or neglectful familieskids who receive inadequate child carethose born with very low birth weight due to maternal smoking diet or abuse of alcohol and drugskids born to parents with mental illness or substance abuse problems WHAT AFFECTS RATES AND EXPRESSION OF MENTAL DISORDERSnew pressures and social changes may place children at increased risk for dev of disorderenv stressors may act as nonspecific stressors that bring about poor adaptation or even the onset of a disorder in some vulnerable childrenaffect the course of the disorder by affecting the extent to which the childs problems are attenuated or exacerbated POVERTY AND SOCIOECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEabout 15 kids in the US and 17 in Canada live in povertynative americanfirst nations and african american kids are at greatest riskpoor children suffer more across domainspoverty has a significant yet indirect effect on kids adjustment which affects learning and mental health3
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