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Lecture 7

PSY345-Lecture 7.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

PSY345-Lecture 7 March 6, 2013 Difficulties with Deaf Culture Approach  All parents want their children to speak in same native tongue  Mom usually learns ASL (completely different language)  Have one common language, but may have additional languages Solution 1: Cued Speech  Spoken English + hand signs that enable a deaf person to distinguish similar lip movements with different meaning  Deaf community doesn’t like it-slap to ASL  Proponents cite success stories where such students went far in life  People don’t become proficient in either language and can only talk to people who know cued speech Solution 2: Total Communication  Most common approach-teachers use any and all means to communicate with their students-speech, writing, ASL, finger spelling (go through each letter separately, take much longer)  Psychological-we’re human beings  Doesn’t really work because no teacher can sign and speak at the same time  Advocates of oralism often don’t permit signing whatsoever in order to encourage their students to learn English  It is really the oral approach + a few signs Solution 3: Bilingual-Bicultural  Usually starts off with sign language and builds on that knowledge to teach English as a second language  Many parents feel that this just smuggles in ASL and English will be dropped later or dry up  Age of introducing second language varies according to program. Some programs teach ASL to kids who Controversial Issues (I)  Deaf children of deaf parents often do better than deaf children of hearing parents. It is unclear if this is a result of early exposure to appropriate language or due to a different congenital problem  Deaf children of deaf parents only usually have one disability hearing impairment, deaf children of hearing parents often have more problems  Deaf leaders claim that they don’t say that hearing parents aren’t qualified to make decisions about their deaf children. They, however, have to have contact with deaf people in order to make educated decisions Controversial Issues (III)  Parents only see doctors, audiologists who see deafness as a pathology  Fears of parents involve giving up control and sending their children to residential schools for the deaf  System is highly political-resistance in residential schools to spoken English Conclusions  No approach has proven to be the right one for everyone. This would depend upon the degree of hearing loss and the ability to learn spoken language  Kids who are hard of hearing rather than profoundly deaf may feel stripped off of right to belong to mainstream culture if denied access to English  There is some common ground: captioning on TV, TDD with free relay service  What is the difference between these technological advances and cochlear implants or hearing aids? The critical point is whether change is to environment or to person Visual Impairment  Usually want to be fixed  Light comes in through lens, lens changes shape, projects the image to the retina (rear part of eye), retina has various different cells cones and rods that converts this light simulation into neural impulses, travel through optic never into brain  We read with our central vision, sides of retina could have poor peripheral vision  Prevalence of visual problems:  Children with severe V.I. 14/10,000  Children with total blindness: 1/10,000  Canada-approximately 2000 children  Professionals involved:  Ophthalmologist-medical docyor who specializes in eye diseases and disorders  Optometrist: specialist (not a medical doctor) who is trained to measure visual function related to the prescription of corrective lenses Etiology of Blindness in Infancy  Heredity (leading cause)  Infectious diseases (Rubella. Meningitis, Encephalitis)  Metabolic and vascular diseases  Prematurity, birth trauma or complications (including oxygen deprivation)  Maternal drug abuse  Disruption of eye muscle coordination (ex: secondary to cerebral palsy) Vision Concepts  Visual Acuity: distance from which an object can be recognized. Determined using the “Snellen” test (eye chart in doctors office)  Visual field: portion of space that can be seen with the fixated eye. Visual field is considered to consist of central and peripheral regions (normal=180 degrees)  Accommodation: ability of the eye to bring an image into focus Visual Acuity  20/20 vision: what the average adult can see at a distance of 20 feet (as measures on a standard eye chart)  20/30 vision: a person sees at 20 feet what the average adult sees at 30 feet  20/200 vision: a person sees at 20 feet what the average adult sees at 200 feet Legal Definitions  Legal blindness: acuity measure of 20/200 (6/60 metric) or less in the better eye with correction, or acuity better than 20/200 if there is a significant visual field defect –20 degrees of less (ie. tunnel vision)  Partial sight: visual acuity of grater than 20/200 but not better than 20/70 Education Definitions  Functional definitions are generally more useful than acuity measures for educational purposes  Visual function varies with experience and other factors Educational Definitions (I)  Near-normal vision: with corrective lenses or reading aids, these individuals can function without special training -fully included class, don’t need help from anybody  Moderate impairment: moderate reduction of acuity with no significant loss of visual
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