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Lecture

Lecture 1 + 2.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY345H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes What does “Exceptional” mean?  Evaluations: very poor, poor … excellent, EXCEPTIONAL o Word has a positive connotation (person has outstanding skills in area) … but NOT what it really means:  Semantic meaning : statistical statemexception from the rule  Distribution of IQ scores – most people: 1 or 2 SD w.in mean o exceptional IQ scores: deviate a LOT from mean (typically seen) o exceptionally HIGH or exceptionally LOW > don’t conform to rule o Exceptional: above 145 (gifted) & below 55 (disabled – autism, etc)  Exceptional = not fitting in the norm o Education is designed around the average student o below – NEED to receive something EXTRA – labelled exceptional = grants them rights o Can be in many different areas Exceptional: higher or lower end of walking, talking, learning, visual, reading etc Disabilitie>> below average … lower end 1 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes History of Social Change of disability  Not completely different than other areas (eg. mental illness) o Mental illness & disability are not mutually exclusive {can be the same thing}  There was NO concise shift from one period to another & some things (eg. isolation) still exist Social isolation (oldest stage, but still exists today)  Murder or Confinement outside society o baby born with physical impairment/disability = murdered, neglected o if society was more gentle = confinement outside society (shunned out)  Leper Colonies (1903-1957) o To get to the island {need to cross the water channel}  Biblical times: Jerusalem under roman rule o Leper colony in valley, outside the city o Put in caves, down the mountain … families lowered food to them WHY isolate people with disabilities?  Leprosy – disease affecting skin, muscles, etc… highly contagious  Thought disabilities (eg. down syndrome) were contagious too o didn’t have knowledge, they were scared  Very religious time – baby born with down syndrome seen as punishment Then, Humanitarian & Legal Reforms (18 century; 200-150 ya) Major shift in treating disabled(Western approach)  In Europe & NA: starts to flourish and starts to grow o Huge advancement in medicine & huge developments in humanities o More understanding of disability, illness & what is contagious  Reforms, emancipations (minorities): more liberal views, push away religion a little bit Industrialization– industrial revolution [employment for disabilities]  Modern era – started w.humanitarian reforms o HR: “it’s not right – it’s unethical/immoral to kill & isolate”  started by the church “we are all equal” >> eventually lead to legal reforms (1960s) o Practical & ethical reasons – humanitarian reforms: started by communities {primarily the church} – including disabled individuals  Cities started to grow >> created problems o People with mental illness lived on the streets o Prior to industrialization: lived in small rural areas (not sophisticated societies) = fitted in better – if everyone was doing the same easy task (eg. picking apples), the disabled fit in o In big societies (more industrial) = more demands for knowledge & university + difficult tasks + long hours – larger gap seen in people with disabilities (couldn’t fit in)  Solutions: o the church will look after them OR non-for profit organizations = not good anymore o So larger states had to assume some role –  General focus of isolation & exclusion was STILL THERE!!  “us” and “them” – they belong there, separately  Built institutions 2 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes Solution: Institutionalization  Asylum for idiots (1877) – built far out of the city = removal from society o Had a ranking system: idiots, imbecile (marking cognitive levels) o Removed from society, family barely saw them  W. Ross McDonald School for the Blind (Branford, ON) Positive Note:  Governments for the 1 time: started taking responsibility  Giving disabled “rights” – to food, to shelter, etc. (b/c they can’t look after themselves) Key problems:  Disabled are “subhuman” – they cannot belong to the general society o Isolating them from society, is it good for them to be away from family/normal people/to be only with people who have similar disabilities  Abuse & uncalled for procedures (ie. Lobotomy – remove frontal lobe to reduce impulsivity)  Advantage was taken of patients (eg. orphanage + catholic church) o Closed institution: some have LOT of power, others LITTLE + NO communication w. outside world = ugly human nature o Openness & accountability = difficult for bad things to happen … weren’t rehab places that were really helping people to get better – housed people with disability to keep the away from society & treat them in humane way … it was separating & controlling, not looking after 1960s: civil rights movement – race, sex (equality)  With this, the disabled started a movement too >> the right to not be isolated o Ethical problem: who are you to say where you have to live + under those conditions?  Gradual change, gradual closing down of institutions (disabled included in main stream)  Institutions today: for the most disabled of society, with full consent of family & they participate Social Inclusion movement (1960s)  Very strong – demonstrations for public protest against people w. disabilities  Famous protest: Louisville, Kentucky o Person using wheelchair waiting in bus stop – asked the driver to get up, the driver took off … by the time next bus arrived 150 people surrounded bus & wouldn’t let it move  Protests continue today (eg. Israel – hearing impairments)rd rights movements for ALL o Still have social isolation + dealing w. humanitarian (3 world countries) & legal reforms (establishing laws in Western countries … 2005 rights for disabled established)  Every human being (Cdns) = same rights to be part of society just like anybody else 3 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes Legislation – Currently : IN Canada & US = period of legislation  NOT an ISSUE: disabled have rights  ISSUE: funding!! – acknowledge rights, but what about priorities? o Who’s going to pay? Gov’t or Owner of stores? – build ramps, etc. o Competing rights (Aboriginals, Disabled, etc) – people claim are disadvantaged; gov’t has to spend more money for them to have equal access to society  Legislation lead by US (all laws are based on this) Laws : protecting minorities Canadian Charter of Rights & Freedoms  Contained in Constitution Act (1982) – takes precedence above all else o Doesn’t define EXACTLY what it means – but ALL other laws created have to be consistent w. it  All CDNs: right to – liberty, equality + freedom – religion, expression, etc.  Guarantees to everyone access to everything  GOOD: for a start – builds a framework (6.5/7 on scale of our rights)  Problem : very general – broad; not specific o General ethical, moral principles about what kind of society we are going to be o Doesn’t say what each organization has to do (ambiguous) o Basic philosophy about how people will be treated th Example: get hired for job on 4 floor – no elevators & you’re in a wheelchair o The only reason you can’t get the job – b/c you can’t get up the flight of stairs o BUT if force lawyer to install an elevator in building (doesn’t own it – renting place) OR move to a new location = putting lawyer out of business o All charter says is that you have a right, but not what to do  Disabled has rights, Lawyer has rights too o NEED more specific laws – that says EXACTLY what to do 4 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes Ontario Human Rights Code (2008 revised)  Has to be consistent with the charter  Provincial matter – all other laws must agree with this code  More specific – no discrimination/harassment in: o Areas: jobs, housing, services o Race, sex, age, disability  Still in the process of revising laws  Ontario human rights commission administers all this – if discriminated, that’s who you go to Accessibility for Ontarians w. Disabilities Act (AODA) – {2005}  Develop accessibility standards (customer standards) – o Identify, remove & prevent BARRIERS for disabled > in private & public sectors o Also including disabled – develop standards = in stages (reached every 5 years)  Specified for disabled (accessibility & accommodation) o Wheelchair – does the employer need to accommodate you or not? o How big does the employer have to be before they are forced to pay/how much? o Should there be ramps to get into homes, instead of steps?  Standards to be met – by 2025 – SPECIFIC & POWERFUL o All public buildings = ramps & fully accessible o All public establishments = accessible [theatres, restaurants] – otherwise shut down o Private companies serving the public >> NOT PRIVATE HOMES Difficulties – many restaurants are narrow (eg. bathrooms upstairs & no elevators) o New customer standards may affect owners negatively  Big companies that care about their image lived up to these standards o Good will: protect their image + it’s ethical o Now enforced – remove barriers for people with disabilities  Example: TTC – voice recording + flashing bulbs showing the stop 5 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) – {1990}  Most powerful law** – came about a long time ago (before Ontario)  Federal law in US (in Canada: provincial law – affects all ON; in US: affects MORE people) o AODA – modelled on ADA  Includes: employment, government (state & local), public accommodation, commercial facilities, transportation, telecommunication  Big debate about transportation (obesity – pay for 2 seats?) o Seen as disability (are you responsible for it?) + can’t inconvenience ppl around you o Airlines are losing revenue if you occupy 2 seats – if they say they are disabled (can’t control it) … protected by ADA –  VERY inclusive definition of disability! o physical/mental impairment – “substantially” limits 1+ major life activities  what is “substantial” – perceived by someone as ok, perceived by you as a problem – eg. CTT is accessible BUT it’s far o history/record of such impairment o perceived by others of having impairment  impairments are not explicitly stated = broad approach (to be inclusive) >> protected by ADA: have disability/relationship w. someone w. disability << Want to create a barrier free society. Have laws – so what are we going to do? Barrier-Free Society Through: 1. Accessibility to education (FAPE – free appropriate public education)  every child has right to free & appropriate (meet needs) & public education (remove barrier)  not always the case – gr. 1 who uses wheelchair prohibited from attending schools  legislation for children has come BEFORE other legislations (eg. AODA in 2005) 2. Accessibility to employment  No more physical barriers – all disabled can have a job  Now, possible for people to work from home (cloud, internet, etc) – less of an issue today  Least restrictions: physical disabilities, sensory impairments, highest for mental delays 3. Living (& learning) in the community  Institutions closed down, full inclusion  Problem: disability is defining feature of the person {determines skills} – (race or sex isn’t) o diff. level, more complicated than removing barriers like done for religion & race 4. Legislation to guarantee inclusion & accessibility  Important!! – deterrent {know limits} + clarifies expectations {what to do} + recourse 6 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes WHO works in the Field to REMOVE barriers? Accommodation for people w. disabilities into general society – 2 things MUST happen: a balancing act 1. Society must be more accommodating (inclusive) –  Build ramps, make places accessible 2. People with disabilities have to be open (come forward as much as possible) –  Ready to use wheelchairs – not request university to provide education in their home  Have to buy a wheel chair, know how to use it, be physically strong enough For disabled to come forward…professionals make it happen: Biggest Field: teacher aids (ERWs (educational resource workers); TAs) > 50%  Work in the school system with disabled, not teachers themselves So, because BIGGEST field (in schools) who are the people w. disabilities?  Learning disability {yes! High prevalence} – is this a disability? Before NO, now YES – because school is such an integral part of society today (before agriculture mainly)  Definition of disability is socially constructed: what we expect ppl to do in society  What separates certain disabilities (eg. vision/hearing) that have existed for a long time + across all around the world, from other (eg. learning/ADHD) disorders that are primarily recognized in school system & expectations set by society to perform Others : change society & help individuals integrate  Interpreters (sign language)  Rehab counsellors, Physical therapists,  Recreational Therapists, Audiologists  Supervisors, administrators, work study coordinators  Vocation education teachers – prepare students for integration in workforce 7 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes  Occupational therapists – o Bridge gap between individual & their env’t  eg. teach child how to use pencil o modify environment to make it more accessible  eg. paralyzed person – design systems to help person to move around … example – hammock activated w. sound  Phys. Ed, counsellors, social workers, supervisors, psychologists, etc. Prevalence of people with disabilities In the work force (Canada)  Learning disabilities/ADHD are not present  only exist in the school system (culturally det.) o High prevalence of ADHD & learning disabilities – the majority of them DO work  Different pictures of disabilities (distributions) depending on what population you’re looking at o Workforce or not? Adults? Children? Can’t look at graph & accept it at face value that it’s the distribution (dep. on statistics) o Who was it sampled from? What is the legislation like? When was it sampled? In children (US; 2007): LARGE incidence, NOT serious  43.6% - specific learning disabilities  matches prevalence of ERW/TAs in the field  Speech & language impairments (19%) – o speech disorders children grow up w. & from (eg. pronouncing L) LOW incidence, serious - *caution with how words are used*  Visual impairments (.4%) & hearing impairments (1.2%)  Dev’t delay (1.5% - eg. down syndrome) … CAN reflect mental retardation.  Autism (4.3% - dep. on diagnosis – strict? Incl. Aspergers/PDD or only w. autism?)  Mental retardation (not used in Canada; UK – learning disability = intellectual dis.) 8 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes Education  Mandated clearly in FAP (free, appropriate, public education) – provided by school boards  Entitled to education: JK (4 yrs) – 21 yrs Depending on the jurisdiction in North America: o When they start (4 or 5 or 6) o Half day/full day JK & SK o Special ED vs. general ED from JK or SK or Gr.1  Very important years – early childhood o extensive services designed to ensured to meet the needs of children with disabilities Not the same system as offered by FAP school boards – BEFORE 4 & AFTER 21  Before 4: OHIP (in ON) + other agencies  Not mandated, not well funded  After 21: Poor funding & lack of professional experience  ADA (societal rights) vs. IDEA (educational rights)  educational acts: guarantees rights to FAP o came BEFORE specific laws (provincial/federal) that provide general rights to disabled  notion of education – precedes notion that all people have the right to full access to society 9 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes IDEA (Individuals w. Disability ED act; AM, federal) 1990 + Bill 82 (ED Act on Special ED; provincial ON) KEY principles:  Rights {also covered in FAP} +  Process (what kids are eligible for) 1. Labelling + Placement  NEEDS: non-discriminatory & multidisciplinary assessment Labelling  Identify the problem o what they need based on their disability  Justify allocation of resources o Education is designed around average students o Isolated classrooms, 1-1 instruction, resource workers o Justification for public to provide funds for own child  Student is exceptional (way below/above average)  Assessment & labelling = belong to one extremities = justify resource allocation o Know those that get extra funds/help = those that really need it Placement  Place child should be: in general ED – in local neighbourhood = DEFAULT o CAN place child elsewhere (special school/special class)  Can’t label child & place child anywhere else unless there’s an assessment  Protects child from getting FAP (default) – nothing can be done arbitrarily in the school system o Will get help if they need it (professional assessment everyone agrees with)  Any type of movement of student from general ED in neighbourhood school is NOT possible without the assessment HAS TO BE: non-discriminatory assessment + multidisciplinary  Non-discriminatory: no racial bias  Multidisciplinary: o Problems with child >>  Has a disability  Is gifted (therefore bored)  Hungry, lack of discipline, goes to sleep late, parents fight, etc  Visual impairment (central vision, never diagnosed) o Hearing & vision detected earlier BUT don’t send social worker to the house o Do psych-educational assessment, and that’s it So, doesn’t always happen OVERALL: PROTECTS child, family – School can’t label, place kids – has to be done properly 10 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes 2. Parental involvement  Consent for testing & placement  Participation as a team member in dev’t IEP IEP: different than general curriculum (modified or accommodated) o Accommodations – following same curriculum, but changing things (ie. seating arrangements, audio book, settings) to make it easier for child to learn o Modifications – changes in the curriculum; ie. in delays (intellectual, developmental – down syndrome)… developmentally appropriate learning at a lower level of academia (ie. grade 10 learns to read as a grade 1 child – modified & made developmentally appropriate)  Even IF tested & labelled + recommended placement according – parents can say NO  Protects INDIVIDUAL CHILD – the best advocate for the child is the parent o Parents have only their child to worry about o Principal has many kids to worry about – kid is disruptive & other parents complaining – other children have right to FAP w.o distractions > try to balance = send kid away  Ensures the parent participates in the decisions & modifications/accommodations made  PROBLEM: parents might be in denial & are hopeful/mistrust the school o Children’s AID – take it to court = judge can order that the school is entitled to do assessment/placement without parental consent 3. LRE (least restrictive environment) placement  Learning in LRE – consistent with academic, social, physical needs o Right to FAPE, in LRE  Learning with peers that aren’t disabled o Level 1: General ED (DEFAULT) – by law … any attempt to remove child = whole process  Learning with children not disabled – o normal development; less behavioural problems (exposed to normal behaviours, thinking procedures, interactions, etc.)…learning by observations – observing normal role models  Classrooms w. everyone w. developmental delay = behaviour problems usually; cannot learn normal behaviour patterns  Except for: physical disabilities/visual & hearing impaired) o good education for w.o disabilities – integrating, teaching morals .. learn from each other (empathy, inclusive, caring society – prepare for the rest of lives)  The gaps btwn. normal & disabled – not that great; at younger age  Increase age = larger gaps 4. IEP (individualized education plan) created  Based on assessment  Designed to meet child’s needs – accommodations & modifications = educational plan 4 Landmark principles – seen in ALL educational legislations ALL around the world 11 Lecture 1 + 2 Class Notes How are the Principles achieved? 1. Mainstreaming {aka. main dumping} – in gener
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