Class Notes (839,092)
Canada (511,185)
Psychology (4,237)
PSY345H5 (172)
Lecture 3

lecture 3.doc

17 Pages
60 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY345H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky

This preview shows pages 1,2,3,4. Sign up to view the full 17 pages of the document.
Description
Lecture 3 Class Notes The early childhood years • Focus on individualized attention is important throughout the lifespan • What happens before age 6 and after age 21 (before school takes over)? o School takes over typically around age 6 (gr. 1) o Sometimes school offers support @ age 4,5  In JK/SK – fully included in general ED classes (not a lot of special ED services) o dependent on individual school system • school takes responsibility from gr. 1 (6)  gr.12 (18) … can stay in until 21 First years of life are crucial to the overall development of children • Brain is very plastic • Critical period of development – important skills (walk, talk) & functions • Unless developed in critical periods, hard to develop later on in life • For each child, we don’t know what optimal capabilities are Early stimulation : affects dev’t of language, intelligence, personality, self-worth • Understanding of neurological system: brain is not completely hardwired (it is plastic; synaptic transmission under learning = physical brain changes) o The brain is most susceptible to changes when the child is very young • Long lasting effects on development from early stimulation o Early intervention can reduce overall impact of the disabilities (reach child before brain becomes more hardwired) • Early intervention can help children with disabilities to reach their potential regardless what their potential are Early intervention: ↓ overall impact of disabilities & counteract negative effects of delayed intervention • Financial advantages w. early intervention o Intervene earlier, reduce impact earlier – prevent large costs later on in life • LONG run: less costly & more effective than providing services later in life eg. Behavioral intervention in autistic children o Debate: who should pay? COSTLY o Children do a lot better with this – chances of learning skills (eg. Language) greater with intervention 1 Lecture 3 Class Notes o More costly up front = but helps develop skills (eg. Communication) o Growing up without skills = need more services, become more frustrated = behavioral problems, crime, handled by mental health system • However, they are not cure What services are available? Network of “infant development programs” up to age 6 • Each region (municipality) own network • Well funded Services: don’t deal w. disabilities o OHIP for health, school system for education o Neither – completely cover services that infants need if disabled  Medicine: Disability isn’t illness (eg. Hearing impairment)  School: no role until 4,5 or 6 o Need something beyond school & OHIP • Two agencies: NETWORK + CHILDREN’S AID o Children’s aids = deals w. abuse & neglect not disability  Don’t have laws that mandate operation o IDPs only ones designed to deal w. disabilities  BUT not mandated (no laws) like laws IDA, Bill 82 that mandate educational process  Have ANNUAL funding, but constantly apply for grants • Types of disabilities: intellectual disabilities (developmental delays) o PDD, autism, aspergers; genetic disorders (down syndrome) • Other disabilities: OTHER networks support them o Hearing/visual impairment – other agencies that serve them o Speech & language pathologists, audiologists, optometrists • Even still: others not recognized until kids go to school (eg. Learning/ADHD) Purpose : to serve infants who are at risk for development delay & their families Goals: 1. Optimize the child’s functioning level to their potential – • not to cure or reach certain milestone but to optimize o developmental delays cannot be cured • tries to enable child to reach own potential based on genetic inheritance 2 Lecture 3 Class Notes o normal kids – know what the “potential” is (on average; know bell curve) o disabled kids – don’t know the “potential”  In some, know what to expect (DS), others you don’t know (PDD) • THEREFORE: always be above child’s level to encourage optimal development of child 2. Help parents with information and support – • disability sets lifelong disappointments of dreams and hope for their children • doctors can’t offer support (medication/surgery won’t help) = refer to agency like this 3. Help family solve problems w. special issues/gain access to available services • Waitlists of agencies; people don’t have “rights” to immediately be served by agency • Let them know available services (a lot of variability in the services that are provided!) & help them get access Target population: Who do agencies serve (top priority)? Established risk (diagnosed medical disorder) – first • Know for certain child has disability (diagnosed at birth/in pregnancy) o Example: down syndrome – diagnosed through amniocentesis • Know developmental trajectory o how dev’t will take place & o what support needed to maximize change they reach their potential • Always leads to disability • Help received in individual setting (more optimal) Biological risk (early negative events) – second • Early negative events = high likelihood for causing disability {don’t know for sure} o Example: Birth complication  umbilical cord around the neck of the baby  lack of oxygen during childbirth (anoxia);  breached kid  FAS, drug abuse o Example 2: high fever & hospitalization o Example 3: Prematurity  more preterm = more likely they will have problems (vision, hearing, respiratory, minor neurological disorders - ADHD/learning) 3 Lecture 3 Class Notes • not chromosomal (genetic) – early events = high likelihood of disability (may/may not) • help received in group setting first, then when waiting list is done = individual help Psychological risk (vulnerabilities magnified by environment) – third • Examples: o Poverty o Poor neighborhood o Child abuse: alcohol, poor nutrition o Depressed mother • May or may not increase chances of disability (least likely) • help received in group setting first, then when waiting list is done = individual help ** not mutually exclusive – can overlap (likelihood child will have 1+ risk) eg. preterm child born with DS (biological and established risk) + born to single poor mother whose father was a drug addict and took off (psychological risk) ** ** stimulate child – so that skills that develop naturally in normal children develop to the maximum potential in these children? ** Intervention Approaches Client centered (help client) • only client is involved (ie. Dentist, any type of surgery) • example: medical profession Family centered (help family help client) – mediator model • early period during child’s life • medicine won’t help; primary focus: educational • development strategies implemented by parents – feed, diaper, play, assist o any attempt to intervene w. dev’t delay = family centered o teach family how to stimulate child as best as they can to optimize learning Example: child with language development • NEEDS optimal (& maximal) environment (exposed to language – mom & dad always talking, in a specific way = higher chance for 4 Lecture 3 Class Notes language to develop)  mediator teaches parents how to interact with the child (eg. exaggerate stimulation) • NORMAL children: develop language naturally (TV, friends, etc) even w.o extra stimulation from parents • Inexpensive (no psychologists) and naturally implemented by parents Clear in infants BUT – seen in adults too • Problems in family – seek psychologist (client centered {family is ok, you’re the problem} vs. family centered {difficult family} ** one is NOT better than other (suitability) = best fit to the “problem” we are trying to fix - infants: in general (dev’t delays) family centered BUT if surgery can help = may start with client centered (eg. ear pathology) and THEN implement family centered combo between 2 approaches ** Services Assessment • Typical age: 36 months for Autism – broad assessment o Takes time, has to be done by registered psychologist//psychiatrist • Early screening tools developed: see if the child is AT RISK for delay o Implement intervention at YOUNGER age Planning with parents (IFSP; individualized family service plans) • help family – what are they doing to do to deal w. the disability of child • Who works? Who will they hire? Wellbeing of other siblings? 5 Lecture 3 Class Notes • Purpose: wellbeing for child & for family (will in turn help family) In-home Programs • programs inside the child’s home o child feels most comfortable there o more convenient for parents (don’t have to carry child around; cold weather) – prevent parents from not going to programs o see rearing environment of child (food in fridge) – go back to IFSP to develop plan accordingly to ensure early intervention will work (eg. ways to get money) • parents and agencies have the same goal for the child BUT – o family can shut services out (not legally required to get help from agency) o have to report to children’s AID if see abuse/neglect – take child away • Fine line – best thing for child is for agency staff to develop good relationship with the parents to keep them on board Office visits: programs done in office Counseling • Family grieves all @ once for all the lost opportunities of their children • families need a lot of counseling; children need strong parents to succeed Case management • social worker, speech & language pathologist, etc – related rehab professionals o work together to help the child • someone is responsible to make sure everyone else is on board o make sure program/strategy is implemented in a similar way o parents often become case managers, but not ideal (not professionals) • selecting case manager: o services needed most by child based on the disorder; everyone else 2ndary role  eg. speech pathologist if child is speech impairment o relationship w. family (similarity of culture & language)  understands family most (w.o judgment)  understands cultural rules – dynamics of family roles = appropriately select how to implement changes Parents support groups • provide info and consultation VERY important • can relate on a level they might not be able to other professionals Information 6 Lecture 3 Class Notes Consultation w. staff of other agencies (know what others can offer) • Case manager can facilitate this Research and training (not enough of it; important) • Research to understand how it progresses, etc. • Train pediatrics: recognize signs of early developmental delays & what to do about it Toy and book library Public information talks Who works there? • Nurses • Occupational Therapists – modify env’t & help child w. skills (eg. Motor) • Physiotherapists • Psychologist – not always full time • Speech and language pathologists • Social workers • Graduates – semi-professionals (a lot of work = family visits) Transition to high school and adult life • Transferring to high school  child services continues to be mandated by school board (according to provincial legislation) o Disability recognized sometime before 7 Lecture 3 Class Notes • Middle school get together w. high school + visits by parents to diff. high schools o For the most part, look to the same system Young children with disabilities receive more attention • They are cute like other children o Alike other normal children o They are helpless • People feel sorry or guilty o Bad in the long term – will think they can’t achieve much (no job) o Short term it’s good – they get attention and funding • Correct sense that something can still be done o motivate people to do something about it – brain isn’t hardwired yet o increase likelihood that if child has high potential they will reach it • Parents have hope and they care o Still optimistic; very early on still Therefore compared to other age groups there is more funding & support for younger children (OHIP, early intervention programs) Older children (+ Adults) with disabilities receive less attention • They are not cute anymore • People feel sorry for them, BUT their behavioral problems turn people away o Organic (part of the condition) OR o Learnt (frustration, exclusion, misunderstood) o Protect yourself from them (public safety) • Many feel it’s too late to do anything o If didn’t receive intervention, not much can be done  Example: at 16, the system spews them out of group homes  Feel they’ve been through so many group homes & through so much that nothing can be done o If nothing worked until then, nothing will • Youth and adults with disabilities may become unmanageable to their parents due the their physical size, extend of difficulties and age of their parents o Child is older & so are parents – hard to care for individuals  parents are less able to care for them o Stunt growth of children (hormonal treatments; controversial)  keep them small as adult to be more manageable in terms of care • Parents/educators may have lost hope after many years 8 Lecture 3 Class Notes o Try to teach them something for many years & they can’t do it, give up o Parent becomes frustrated Adolescence Special challenges Normal adolescence issues • Getting larger, are messy • Independent; question authority o Wants to hang out with friends o More challenging (rebellious) • May be excluded
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3,4 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit