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Exceptionality ch 2.doc

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Stuart Kamenetsky

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Exceptionality: Chapter Two Goal of education: full participation for everyone, regardless of race, cultural backgrounds etc. Early special education programs: few educational programs were separate from public schools, established mainly for children that were described as slow learners or had hearing/sight loss. Educational services were granted to children with mild emotional disorders but mental hospitals continued to be the only alternative for children with severe emotional disorders. Special school vs. general education emerged as an issue. Parents wanted their disabled kids to be educated in a school setting where social interaction was promoted with other ‘typical’ kids. Resulted in the development of a new model – Mainstreaming where a child could remain in the general class program for the majority of the school day and receive special education when and where it was needed U.S Supreme Court reaffirmed education as a right & not a privilege. The court ruled that education must be made available to everyone on an equal basis. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]  The Education for All Handicapped Children Act- free and appropriate public education to 4 million U.S disabled school students between ages 6- 21.  Provisions for an individualized education program, safeguards to protect rights of students and their parents, non-discriminatory & multidisciplinary assessment and education with non-disabled peers to the max extent [least restrictive environment] Public Law 99-457 Established a program for infants and toddlers up through 2 years old. They became eligible for services that included a multidisciplinary assessment and an individualized family service plan [IFSP] Congress renamed Education for All Handicapped Children [Public Law 94-142]  Individuals with Disabilities Act [IDEA]. The purpose of name change was to reflect ‘people first’ language and to promote the term ‘disabilities’ instead of handicapped. Zero inclusion principle- no person with a disability can be rejected for a service regardless of nature & extent of disabling condition. Special Education – specially designed instruction provided at no cost for parents in all settings [classrooms, home, hospitals, institutions]. It includes related services which are necessary to ensure disabled students benefit from their educational experience and includes transportation, speech pathology etc. Criteria to be eligible for special education 1. The student must be identified as having one of the disability conditions identified in federal law or a corresponding condition [intellectual disabilities, hearing impairments, language impairments]; Autism (childhood disorder marked by extreme withdrawal, self-stimulation, intellectual deficits & language disorders); Traumatic Brain Injury (tearing of nerve fibres causing brain stem trauma & swelling) 2. Student’s demonstrated need for specialized instruction and related services to get appropriate education. Provisions of IDEA: 1. All disabled students are entitled to a free and appropriate public education designed to meet their unique needs + prepare them for employment and independent living 2. Parents have the right to be involved in decisions regarding their children’s special education program 3. Schools must use non-discriminatory and multidisciplinary assessment in determining children’s educational needs 4. Every student must have an individualized educational program (IEP) 5. Every student has the right to receive their education with nondisabled peers to the max extent appropriate #Students with disabilities are entitled to Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Non-discriminatory + Multidisciplinary Assessment - Students to be tested in their native language, whenever possible - Use of evaluation procedures selected & administered to prevent cultural/racial discrimination - Validation of assessment tools for the purpose they are being used for - Assessment must be made by a team of professionals, using several pieces of info to formulate a placement decision Parental Safeguards & Involvement - To give consent in writing before child is assessed - To give consent in writing as to the educational setting where child will receive special education - To request separate individual assessment if parents believe school’s assessment is inappropriate - To request a copy of child’s educational record Intention of these safeguards: to create an opportunity for parents to be more involved in decisions regarding child’s educational program + to protect student and family from decisions that could affect child’s education Individualized Educational Program (IEP) - Framework for delivering free and appropriate education to every eligible disabled student - No two IEPs should be the same - Purpose is to ensure continuity in delivery of special education services for each student on
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