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Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Lecture 10: Brain Injury 2013 Acquired Brain Injury Type Definition Examples Features Acquired NOT born with it TBI (head hit, gunshot wound) Broad (not congenital) + Others: stroke, brain aneurysm, brain damage secondary to definition radiation (cancer) or secondary to tumor removal, disease of brain (encephalitis, meningitis) TBI Major physical Bad fall, car accident, gunshot wound Narrow trauma Closed v. Open Head definition Open Head – clear physical signs (external bleeding, fractured) eg. gunshot wound, bad fall, hit with baseball bat Closed Head – no clear physical signs (check pupil dilation) eg. car deceleration (accident) – brain hits skull; damage the frontal lobe, rupture/tear brain matter in the brainstem (supports weight of the brain), hemorrhaging (bleeding) = more pressure inside = more brain damage (no tissue regeneration) – sports (repeated damage) (just as severe as open head) Congenital Born with in Developing with brain injury in womb – caused during the pregnancy NOT (before mom went eg. FASD, addicted to cocaine, etc. genetic into labor) (DS) Birth Injury in birthing Lack of oxygen (brain cells need oxygen), heart rate is slow (needs to process process pump blood into brain = oxygen) Risk factors: emergency C-sections, prematurity, umbilical cord around neck, breached child CAUSES Accidents = “collisions” PREVENTABLE!  Auto – Improper use of car seats, not using seat belts (eg. sitting kids in front seat – airbag inflates and damages kid; infants crying in car seat, pick child up in mom’s lap, collision – child goes flying)  Sports – not in league then don’t use helmets, competition (hit each other)  Guns: Canada & US – legally own hunting weapons, bystanders of criminal activity Infant abuse/neglect  Neglect – good willing, but not careful (6M!) >> pick up infant inappropriately (yanked? muscles in neck take over; muscles in neck are weak)  Before 6 months – lack of muscles in neck to support weight of head = brain stem injury  Hard to diagnose right then – appears to be ok (minimal brain dysfunction; ok but something off) Lecture 10: Brain Injury 2013 STAGES OF TREATMENT Case of ADULT: car accident  Frontal lobe injury, brain stem damage,  hemorrhaging, pressure on other cells Keep person alive (stabilize patient; attend to obvious critical signs) coma long time? Surgery & recovery less likely to wake up. Rehab professions (after primary conditions attended to) - Devices & facilities & assistive technologies Always the goal of treatment = re-integration; restore function, then re-integrate  All rehab professions continues to increase person’s functioning + prepare the setting & individual to come together again  Changed individual (personality, ability to work, speak, behave rationally, parenting skills, etc. (NOT PHYSICAL)) NOT always possible that they’ll go back to how it was before  Many injuries = frontal lobe injuries =
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