PSY345 – Lecture 2 January 16, 2013
- The Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
- Educational Integration
o In the past education was segregated based upon race, sex, disability
o End of separation of education
o Achieved by physical placement of students with extensive needs on
general education campuses (melting-pot: everyone comes together).
o Support services are provided, collaboration between general and special
education is provided (unlike mainstreaming).
o Problem: doesn’t call for specific changes in school system for children
o Ex: non-Catholic student going to a Catholic school, Catholic school
doesn’t change to accommodate non-Catholic student.
- Inclusive Education
o Goal standard of how the kids should be educated today
o Students attend their home school with their age and grade peers
Promotes social inclusion (school is near home, same
social/economic class, friends live near).
o It requires that the proportion of students labeled for special services is
relatively uniform for all the schools with a particular district. Students are
not isolated into special classes or wings within the school.
- Full Inclusion
o Students who are disabled or at risk receive all their instruction in a
regular education setting; support services come to the student.
o For kids who have mild disabilities that don’t affect their ability to learn,
- Partial Inclusion:
o Students receive most of their instruction in regular education settings but
the students may be “pulled out” to another institutional setting when it is
deemed appropriate to their individual needs.
For kids who have a behavioral problem and may disrupt the class
o There are clear limits to full inclusion: the school has to change in order to
support the child. By law the school has to include everyone.
- Partial: more restrictive environment
o Much more realistic environment for most children
o Pragmatic issue: what’s best for the child
o Political issue that leads to resources (ex. Catholic school board says that
they don’t have enough resources to support every special needs child, so
the child ends up going to public school).
- Inclusion Checklist (7 items) - Slides
5) Integration between special education teacher and other teachers
7) Flexible support systems work best.
Steps for the Individualized Education Program process - Prereferral: child is in general education, maybe disruptive in class
o Parents aren’t notified, so the child may end up spending a lot of time in
o Teacher has the authority to treat the child differently (have the child
change seat/sit in front of the class).
o Ability of the school to establish certain terms of judgment.
Family notification, three-way communication
- Referral: multidisciplinary, professional consultation by a psychologist, non-
discriminatory assessment (expensive)
- Identification: (In Canada – IPRC)
o Recommendations will be provided by people who did the assessment
o IPRC will decide whether or not to identify the child
o When IPRC decides that the child does need special education services
- Instructional Decision making: IEP (Individualized Educational Program)
o Modifying curriculum (ex: modification in one or more subjects)
o Accommodation (oral test instead of written, more time for the test, etc).
o Kids who have modified curriculum don’t often get the credits required to
graduate and receive a certificate of completion.
o The process is perfect in term of its intention but its slow progress
- Review/revise IEP: every year, either keeps the IEP the same, modify it to make it