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Lecture 10

Lecture 10.doc

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY345H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky

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Lecture 10 Mild (Learning and Behavioural) and Severe (Multiple) Disabilities - Cross-categorical approach: an alternative to traditional approaches of defining and classifying individuals w/ dis. o classification is based on severity and educational needs rather than diagnosis - Why use alternative approach? o Not enough information on specific academic needs for each disability o Lecture strategy o One-on-one o Visual material o Teach how to read w/ written material o Didactic vs. experience - We don’t have different educational tools you may apply them differently but the tools are the same - Behavioural problems o Behavioural strategy (remove antecedence) - We’re stigmatizing and segregating students - Given labels which don’t help teachers may treat students according to label, even though label doesn’t tell us anything that helps us help teach them - Proponents of traditional approaches claim that: o Grouping students under a single label is non-functional o Individual categories are more relevant for educational planning o Sensory disorders require different learning strategies, communication disorders - Rationale: to enhance opportunities for success in general classrooms - Prevalence: 8-9% of all school aged children - More than 70% of students eligible for special ed. are classified as having learning disabilities - Key Points - Assessment has to be flexible o Focus on needs not change (2 diff causes present same problems) - Intervention focused on present functioning deficits - Additional support services for academic and/or adaptive skills - Academic deficit or behavioural probs can occur together or alone (ADHD in boys have behavioural problems are diagnosed early and ADHD in girls, no behavioural problems diagnosed late) - Norm-reference testing and criterion – reference testing are both used - Academic & behavioural problems are most evident within school setting * some of these kids would never be diagnosed if they weren’t placed in school - Students remain in gen ed. w/ support (LRE) - Disabilities are considered mild & grouped together b/c most such students share a variety of characteristics as there is considerable overlap in students classroom performance - Behaviour difficulties o Abused become abusive o Low success in school can decrease self-esteem  class clown - Learning disabilities o All ranges of IQ - Low academic achievement o Results from behavioural disorders or emotional problems o Result from leaning or intellectual disabilties - Intra-individual achievement o Results from learning dis. o Mental retardation - Causation: unknown but psychosocial factors have been implicated - Educational intervention: instruction should include o Develop motivation to learn o Promote acquisition of academic, cognitive, and social skills o Enhance ability to transfer skills learned in school to diff. envt o *Lower standards and give help so child gets an A and has proof that they are smart Severe/Multiple Disabilities - Individuals have physical, sensory, intellectual, and/or adaptive skill deficits - Individuals exhibit general deficits - Causes are identifiable in most cases - Individual require significant programming and accommodation - Term multiple is used b/c majority of ppl have more than one disorder - *anoxia leads to neurological damage = many problems - “dual sensory impairment” – ppl who are both deaf and blind as a result require extensive support o low incidence o require one-on-one tactile based education - dual diagnosis – serious emotional problems in conjunction w/ mental retardation o very difficult to treat o hard to reason w/ these individuals - functional assessment most appropriate and include: o practical independent survival skills o ecological component o examination of process of learning and performance o intervention techniques o ongoing monitoring procedures - prevalence: no more than 0.1%-1% of general pop’n - causation: numerous problems are generally evident at birth o genetic or metabolic problems o birth defects o postnatal factors - Characteristics and Educational Needs o May require ongoing support Giftedness Stereotypes of Giftedness Old Stereotype - Gifted child is weak, socially inept, narrow in interests, and emotionally unstable New Stereotype - gifted child is superior in every way – intelligence, physique, socially, etc. - according to the stereotype the child that is gifted is (an all American boy) a boy, blue eyes, not necessarily blonde hair ( but not very dark) white, very nice, has lots of friends, usually has a little sister, has overcome adversity in life, - children are all tested in grade 3 ( all children get the same testing assessment) and then after that those who score higher will get additional testing Eight Great Gripes of Gifted Kids 1. No one explains what this is all about – it’s kept as a secret 2. The stuff we do in school is too easy and it’s boring 3. Parents teachers, and friends expect us to be perfect to “do our best” all the time 4. Kids are often teased about being smart 5. Friends who really understand are few and far between 6. We feel too different and wish ppl would accept us for who we are 7. We feel overwhelmed by the # of things we can do in life 8. We worry a lot about world problems and feel helpless to do anything about them - intellectually superior, not emotionally Characteristics of Students who are Gifted - advanced vocabulary for chronological age - outstanding memory: possesses a lot of info - curious: asks endless questions - has many interests, hobbies, and collections - may have a “passionate interest” that has lasted for many years (e.g. dinosaurs) - intense gets totally absorbed in activities and thoughts - strongly motivated to do things of interest may be unwilling to work on other activities - operates on higher levels of thinking than same-age peers, is comfortable w/ abstract thinking - perceives subtle cause & effect relationships - prefers complex and challenging tasks to basic work - may be able to track two or more things simultaneously (e.g. daydreaming, and teacher’s lecture) - catches on quickly, then resists doing work or works in a sloppy careless manner - comes up with “better ways” for doing things, suggests them to peers, parents, and other adults - sensitive to beauty and other ppl’s feelings and emotions - advanced senses of justice and fairness - aware of global issues that are uninteresting to many age-level peers - sophisticated sense of humour, may become class clown - gen. ed. can often be disastrous for child teacher and other students teacher becomes defensive – child is discouraged from being creative because insistence is to t
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