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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

CHAPTER 15 GIFTED, CREATIVE, AND TALENTED - Gifted – children and youth who have exceptionally high intelligence - Gifted, creative and talented – words used to describe individuals with extraordinary capabilities or the capacity for developing them - Creativity includes elaboration (ability to enrich an idea), transformation (ability to construct new ideas) and visualization (capacity to manipulate ideas mentally) - Alfred Binet – 1900’s – constructed the development assessment scale for youth and children - Mental age – Binet and Simon – derived by matching tasks (memory, vocabulary) performed by the child to the age scale (which showed typical performance in various ages) - Terman introduced the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale – individual intelligence test o IQ – mental age/chronological age x 100 - 1920’s – being intelligent only meant having a high IQ - Gulford – saw intelligence as a wide range of intellectual and creative abilities o Intellectual model – each cube contained a unique kind of operation, content and product, hence a distinctly different intellectual ability - Gifted education Giftedness Then Now - Status was a statistical contribution - Potential is nurtured - Quantitative and psychometric - More qualitative than quantitative Identification of giftedness Then Now - Found only the “right gifted students - Seeks to nurture students best potentials - Selection - Prepares for improved instructional planning Response to giftedness Then Now - Single program for all, limited options - Flexibility in choice and duration - Prespecified curriculum –fixed content - Based on students characteristics Definitions and Concepts Ross - Children or youth who perform at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared to others the same age. These children posses an unusual leadership capacity or excel in specific fields. They require service not generally provided by the school and these children come from all kinds of race, economic status etc. Elementary and Secondary Education Act - Child who give high achievement capability in various areas and who need services not generally provided in school to develop those capabilities Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence - Analytic (aptitude and intelligence), synthetic (creative, intuitive and insightful) and practical (problems of everyday life) - WICS – wisdom, intelligence, creativity, synthesized Gagne - Catalysts (intrapersonal and environmental) shape and influence developmental processes that gives rise to talents Ramos Ford and Gardner - Abilities that allows individuals to solve problems in a particular cultural setting - Theory of multiple intelligences o Linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinaesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal o Go over table 15.1 pg 419 Piirto’s pyramid of talent development - Genetic aspects -> emotional aspect -> cognitive aspect -> talent aspect -> environmental aspect Prevalence - Before 1950’s it was 2-3% of general pop (mainly b/c of IQ being the main identifier) - Currently 3-25% of the population - Academically talented -> 15-20% of general school population Characteristics - Resounding trait – developmentally advanced in language and thought - Innate curiosity, well adjusted, socially adept, high sensitivity - Positive o High curiosity o Rapid language development as a child o High capacity memory o Independent and self directed o Excellent sense of humour o Multiple capabilities o Expanded awareness - Negative o Uneven mental development o Nonconformity o Excessive self-criticism o Depression o Extreme perfectionism o Self-doubt and poor self image o Interpersonal difficulties - Intelligent, intuitive, open-minded, need alone time (reflective, may be withdrawn), artistic, sense of humour, curious, motivated, risk taking independent, original, aware of creativeness Origins of Giftedness - Identical twins studies -> 44-72% of intelligence was inherited - Star model – general intellect, special aptitude, non-intellective factors, environmental supports and chance o Dynamic (environmental changes) and static (something that remains unchanged like race) factors Assessment - Contextual paradigm or approach – relies on divergent views of giftedness as valued and determined by community members, parents, grandparents and so on - 1 step – screening – selection of students who are gifted - After screening – identification and selection begins Teacher nomination - Problems – teachers might have a bias to students who are more co-operative and so on - Need to have a thorough understanding of the various kinds of giftedness Intelligence and Achievement tests - Some tests have low ceilings – does not let child demonstrate full potential - Advantage – identifies underachievers - Ceiling effects – range of test questions or problems that does not permit the gifted child to perform and demonstrate their true capacity Creativity tests - Helps discover capacity not evident normally in classrooms - Ex question “what would happen if your eyes were adjusted and you could see things as small as germs?” - Recommendations for identifying gifted students o Avoid using a single cut-off score o Repeat assessments over time to identify additional gifted students o Use multiple alternative criteria o Be aware that giftedness may appear in different forms in different cultural or socioeconomic groups Services and Support Early childhood - Many say children with high cognitive ability can be identified in second year of life - Appropriate and early stimulation is vital to the development of all children
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